Adult smoking and exposure to the smoke of others were assessed in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus), based on 46 BWHS participants who developed the illness. Both smoking in adulthood and childhood exposure to smoke were associated with an increased risk of lupus. The collection of further data will permit more informative analyses of this possibility.

A diet validation study was carried out within the BWHS, in which participants were asked to provide 24-hour recalls of food intake by telephone, and also to keep 3-day food diaries, which they mailed in. This paper reports on characteristics of women who kept food diaries and those who did not. There were some differences, such as women who did not keep food diaries having more child-care responsibilities than those who kept diaries, but the nutrient intakes of the two groups were similar.

Discoid lupus is a form of lupus that affects the face and scalp. These data suggest that cigarette smoking may increase the risk.

The frequency of reporting experiences and perceptions of racism was greater among younger women. The frequency was also higher among women with higher levels of education. The latter suggests that experiences and perceptions of racism do not diminish with increasing socioeconomic status as measured by level of education.

In these preliminary analyses, preterm birth was most strongly associated with having had a previous preterm birth, the mother having been preterm herself, and the mother having had no previous children. Preterm birth was less common among women with higher levels of education.

Obesity as an adult was strongly associated with obesity at age 18 and with physical inactivity. These findings suggest a need to emphasize obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence and to promote participation in physical activity.

BWHS participants generally reported low levels of physical activity. Greater participation in strenuous exercise was related to higher levels of education. Participation in exercise was also greater among women who had exercised in high school, suggesting that educational efforts to increase levels of physical activity should start at early ages. link to online article