Boston Hospitality Review (BHR) is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to scholarship and reflection about the theory and practice of hospitality as a business activity and cultural phenomenon. It is published for the benefit of academics, industry practitioners, and the interested public by the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University.

Arun Upneja, Ph.D.

Dr. Michael Oshins, Ed.D.

Contributing Editors
Leora Halpern Lanz, LECT
Makarand Mody, Ph.D.
Christopher Muller, Ph.D.
Peter Szende, Dr. oec.
Arun Upneja, Ph.D.

Assistant Editor & Webmaster
Kate Wilson

Copy Editor
Caroline Salas
Kue Xiong

Published by
School of Hospitality Administration
Boston University

ISSN 2326-0351


Prospective contributors should review the author guidelines on our website prior to submitting manuscripts.


Opinions expressed in Boston Hospitality Review are solely those of the authors. Boston University and the editors do not necessarily agree with, nor do they endorse, these opinions. Boston University and the editors do not endorse companies or products that may be mentioned in articles. The inclusion of such firms is solely at the discretion of the authors. Authors may have ownership interests, consulting arrangements, or other business relationships with these companies.

Copyright and Servicemark

© Copyright 2015 by Boston University. The name “Boston Hospitality Review” and the multicolored logo are servicemarks of Boston Hospitality Review and Boston University.


Readers are welcome to share articles within their professional and personal networks. This means that individuals and organizations may reproduce and distribute unabridged articles, without permission or royalty fee, provided that the materials are distributed without charge. This permission extends to text excerpts, provided that attribution is given to the journal and the authors. However, this permission does not extend to visual excerpts of any type, such as photographs, which may never be reproduced separately from the articles in which they are embedded. For situations in which articles or excerpts are resold for a charge, or included within a package of materials that is sold for a charge, permission is required and a royalty fee may be imposed. These regulations apply to all forms of reproduction, distribution or transmission, in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, digital representation, or any information storage or retrieval system.

BHR is an open access journal, which means that all full-text articles are freely available for users and institutions to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, link to, or use for any other lawful purpose.


Boston Hospitality Review
School of Hospitality Administration
Boston University
928 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
Dr. Michael Oshins, Ed.D., Editor
Associate Professor of the Practice
Boston University School of Hospitality Administration