Volume 47, Number 4
IN THIS ISSUE
- Members' Meeting Minutes
- ASOR Reception Features Awards
- EBA Grants Announcement
- Back to the Future (President's Report)
- Sought for CAP, CAMP Chairs
- Obituary for Holden Gibbs, ASOR Treasurer
- Albright Awarded NEH Grant
- Outreach Education
- CAARI News
- ACOR Fellows' Reports
- Albright Fellows' Reports
- Conference Calls for Papers
- Meeting Calendar
- E-mail Directory
The meeting was called to order by President Seger at 8:10 a. m.
A questionnaire was distributed asking the members whether they intend to go to the proposed meeting of the ASOR in Memphis, Fall 1998.
1. A roll call list was circulated, and members were asked to indicate if they also represented institutional members of ASOR.
2. It was moved, seconded, and passed that the minutes of the 1996 meeting in New Orleans be approved as printed in the ASOR Newsletter.
3. In his greeting and general remarks, Chairman MacAllister mentioned especially his desire that the views and wishes of the members be made explicit, assuring them that they would be taken seriously by the leadership.
4. Executive Director and Finance - Dornemann
There was a standing moment of silence in remembrance of Treasurer W. Holden Gibbs, who died quite recently. This was followed by the reading of a memorial minute, and it was moved, seconded, and passed that this be conveyed to the Board.
The budget for the forthcoming year was distributed, and the auditor's report was made available.
The generosity of Chairman MacAllister to the overseas centers was again acknowledged. Executive Director Dornemann also commented on the general situation in the new Boston offices.
5. President's Report - Seger
President Seger thanked Chairman MacAllister for hosting the ASOR reception in the hotel the previous night.
It was moved, seconded, and passed that the Emory College, Emory University Program in Mediterranean Archaeology be recommended to the board for institutional membership. President Seger noted that ASOR's founding societies were asked to appoint members to ASOR's board, by our bylaws, and that the AIA and the AOS have responded positively, but the SBL negatively. The invitation to SBL still stands.
Institutional trustee members, with John Spencer as chairman, are to act as a committee of the whole concerning liaison between the board of trustees and other institutional representatives.
President Seger noted the formula for the sharing of space between ASOR and the overseas centers in the Boston offices, and the positive role of President Joukowsky of ACOR in these arrangements. He also mentioned briefly plans for ASOR's centennial. In this connection the Development Committee has been of considerable assistance. In spite of the generous gifts of Chairman MacAllister and former Chairman Charles U. Harris, there is still considerable need for the development of an endowment. The recent banquet here in Napa was a success in raising some funds for centennial activities. In addition he reported that preliminary response to the annual appeal was promising, but that wider participation by ASOR members was needed. Finally, he noted that a third program of development activity involving a push for endowment support-"a million for the millennium"-has been initiated with seed monies of $50,000 being provided by Chairman MacAllister and former Chairman Charles Harris.
President Seger extended his thanks to Billie Jean Collins for her excellent work with the Newsletter, and noted the forthcoming World Wide Web site (http://www.asor.org). He encouraged everyone to pay attention to the news of ASOR activities provided by these communication vehicles.
6. Nominations, Phase I - Younker
Separate ballots were distributed for individual and institutional trustee members elections, with names for nominated Trustees and a blank for a member of the Agenda Committee. Glen Schwartz was nominated from the floor as the institutional members' representative on the Agenda Committee, and a motion to close the nominations was made, seconded, and passed. Oysten Labianca was nominated from the floor as the individual members' representative on the Agenda Committee, and again it was moved, seconded, and passed that the nominations be closed. Members were asked to prepare their ballots for collection and counting as the meeting proceeded.
7. Operating Committees
A. Committee on Archaeological Policy - Rast
Chairman Rast reviewed briefly the history of CAP, and noted that fifty-two projects were evaluated at a meeting on the previous day, with some more to be done by mail. The results of these evaluations will be published in the Newsletter. Small grants are available for affiliated projects through the Endowment for Biblical Archaeology fund.
B. Committee on Publications - Leonard
Chairman Leonard's report was made available, and he mentioned certain financial and budgetary concerns and sales figures. He also noted the change in name from Biblical Archaeologist to Near Eastern Archaeology, and invited interested members to preview the sample masthead and cover for the new journal. Progress in Journals and book publication was also cited, and the availability of a pamphlet describing how to publish with ASOR prepared by Billie Jean Collins was announced.
C. Committee on Annual Meeting and Program - Jacobs
Chairman Jacobs noted the decision last year on the site and time of the current meeting, and emphasized that in terms of registration and program the Napa location has been quite a success, thanks in large part to the excellent work of Collins, Dornemann, Tubb, and Julene Miller. Over 350 have registered, assuring us of close to a financial break-even. Jonathan Tubb noted the relative ease of arranging program sessions.
Jacobs then reported plans for 1998. An e-mail vote of the Executive Committee of the Board was taken on a proposed site in Memphis the last week of October and extending into the first week of November; this proposal passed by a vote of 7 to 3, and at the recent meeting of the Executive Committee here in Napa this was recommended to the full board by a vote of 7 to 2. The ballot of intent passed out here at this meeting resulted in a vote that 46 intend to come to Memphis, 28 do not, with 5 expressing no decision. No definite planning has yet been done for 1999 or subsequent meetings, although 2000 in Boston in connection with the centennial is under serious consideration. Jacobs also mentioned that there are two liaison subcommittees of CAMP; one chaired by Charles Miller to discuss connections with the SBL and AAR, and one with members Waldbaum, Magness, and Jacobs exploring relationships with the AIA and the AOS. It will be suggested to a forthcoming meeting of CAMP that President Seger be empowered to attend a meeting this coming Monday with program representatives from the SBL, encouraging individual members of the ASOR to participate in the 1998 Orlando meeting of that society.
The floor was then opened for discussion, of which there was a considerable amount, most of which seemed to support meeting in connection with the SBL and AAR in Orlando. Among other considerations were the difficulty of finance, time, and teaching responsibilities in attending two meetings, the drop in attendance at board meetings here in Napa, difficulties for Israeli academics (in the Memphis proposal), the presence of book exhibits and employment opportunities at the SBL/AAR meeting, etc. It was pointed out that the success of the current meeting is somewhat deceptive, since it overlaps in time and place with SBL/AAR. There was also some sentiment for a spring meeting, especially for those coming out of summer excavations. It was announced that ASOR Canada would be voting for a return to the SBL/AAR schedule.
President Seger then reviewed contacts with representatives from the SBL and Joint Ventures, and emphasized that they do not really seem to care about our "return." We do not really have accurate numbers for ASOR attendance at earlier meetings. Seger also mentioned financial considerations, unless SBL/AAR/Joint Ventures were to change their policy on registration fees.
It was moved that the ASOR officers follow up any positive feelers from the SBL and AAR for the next and subsequent meetings. The motion was seconded and passed.
It was then moved that CAMP pursue the possibility of meeting back to back, i.e., sequentially with the SBL/AAR in Orlando or nearby. The motion was seconded and passed on a show of hands; it was understood that a concurrent meeting would also be acceptable.
8. Nominations, Phase II - Younker
The results of Phase I were announced: Nan Frederick, Andrea Berlin, and Kyle McCarter as individual MEMBER representatives to the board of trustees, and Charles Miller, Tom Schaub, and Tammi Schneider as institutional MEMBER representatives. Glen Schwarz and Oysten Labianca were elected as institutional and individual representatives to the agenda committee.
Chairman Younker then distributed ballots for recommending individual and institutional members of the nominations committee, with the recently elected trustees being automatically nominated as well.
Burton MacDonald was recommended as the individual member representative to the nominations committee, and Wally Aufrecht as the institutional member representative. The meeting was adjourned at 10:30 a. m.
Respectfully submitted, James F. Ross, Secretary
The first annual presentation of awards to honor ASOR's own society members took place during the Grand Reception on Wednesday November 19th at the 1997 Annual Meeting in Napa, California. The Awards and Honors subcommittee of the Committee on Annual Meetings and Program, chaired by Trustee Lydie Shufro, received nominations through the summer and fall months for awards in several categories named in honor of ASOR notables. The committee, including Harold O. Forshey, Barry Gittlen, Jerry Cooper and Julie Hansen reviewed the nominations and certified the selections. During the ceremony, plaques and certificates of merit were presented to each of the honorees. The names of the 1997 award recipients and the text of the presenters' citations follow.
Recipient of the Richard J. Scheuer Medal
(Presented by Joe Seger)
It is rumored that Norma Kershaw was born with a golden trowel in her mouth. I have tried in vain to remember a time when she was not present and active in our society. Lydie Shufro remembers attending her first ASOR Annual Meeting in 1977 together with Norma who was then President of the Great Neck Society of AIA and teaching archaeological courses in adult education programs.
With an M.A. in Art History from Edith Porada at Columbia, Norma comes by her love of Near Eastern art and archaeology in an honest way. She is the epitome of a life long learner-and an outstanding teacher, lecturer and academic guide.
Her more serious involvement with ASOR-we think-is traceable to a tour in Israel in the late 60s or early 70s. She worked as a volunteer on the excavations at Tel Afeq and at Gezer and so first came to stay at the Albright Institute. Having spent a sleepless night on a lumpy mattress, she turned about and in the following days paid for a new set of mattresses for the Institute. Thus began a career of sensitive and generous responses to the needs of AIAR, ACOR and CAARI. When I first became Albright President she said to me "Look me straight in the eye, tell me what you need, I'll help if I can."
Norma has served as a long term Trustee and active committee member of ASOR and AIAR, and is currently an Honorary Member of both Boards. She was also Trustee and the first President of CAARI. When the Albright Institute needed a new roof, she laid down the challenge for our "Raise the Roof" project. More recently she has provided underwriting for the joint AIA/ASOR Kershaw Lectureship Program, and there is much more.
Simply stated Norma Kershaw is the kind of imaginative and deliberately supportive member any society would be favored to welcome. ASOR is exceedingly blessed to have her intellectual and practical involvement in our councils. I am most pleased and honored to present to Norma Kershaw ASOR's highest award of respect and appreciation, The Richard J. Scheuer Medal.
[Norma Kershaw resides in Mission Viejo, California and is active in the Southern California Chapter of AIA.]
Ernest S. Frerichs
Recipient of the 1997 Charles U. Harris Service Award
(Presented by Lydie Shufro)
When one mentions Ernest S. Frerichs's name at an ASOR or Albright meeting and asks how to describe him in a few words, the response most likely would be: Ernie is a warm, caring, gentle person, trustworthy, with an extraordinary sense of commitment and dedication to any project he becomes associated with, and is a most wonderful and sensitive teacher. Ernie is extremely concerned about the quality of scholarship, and very supportive of the future generations of scholars. He has been responsible for helping start numerous young careers. His interests are so diverse and his breadth of knowledge so vast, that had the internet not been invented, Ernie would have been the best substitute for it, with one major difference: he would have added his own very special sensitivity to any given search.
Ernie has been associated with ASOR and with the Albright for some thirty years. He has been an ASOR Trustee since 1976. He served as Chair both of its Evaluation Committee and of the Nominating Committee, as well as a member of the Fellowship and Grants Committees. From 1993 to 1996 he was ASOR Vice President-at-large. He is currently on the Biblical Archaeologist Editorial Board. He recently was elected by the ASOR Board as an Honorary Trustee.
In addition to his long-standing involvement with ASOR, Ernie has also made an extraordinary contribution to its Jerusalem School, the Albright Institute. First elected as an AIAR Trustee in 1974, he has participated in the work of almost every AIAR committee. He first served as Secretary-Treasurer, and then from 1976 to 1982 as AIAR President. He has since been a continuing member of the Executive Committee and more recently served as Chair of the Nominating Committee. For the past fifteen years he has also been the National Co-Coordinator of the Volunteer Program and of the Consortium Relationship of the Tel Miqne-Ekron Archaeological Expedition, an excavation project affiliated with ASOR and the Albright.
Ernest S. Frerichs is a unique individual who commands the trust, admiration, respect and affection of all who know him. His career long support in dedicated work and service to ASOR and the Albright Institute is truly outstanding. The American Schools of Oriental Research are justly honored to present to him the first Charles U. Harris Service Award.
[Dr. Ernest Frerichs resides in Providence, Rhode Island. Former Dean of Graduate Studies, Professor of Religious Studies, and Director of the Judaic Studies Program at Brown University, he presently serves as Executive Director of the Dorot Foundation. ]
William G. Dever
Recipient of the 1997 P.E. MacAllister Field Archaeology Award
(Presented by Joe Seger) Director of Excavations at Gezer, Tell el Ful, Shechem and Beer Rassasim; author/editor of several excavations volumes in the Hebrew Union College Gezer series as well as of several other collected studies and individual books; ubiquitous contributor to BASOR, BA, and other archaeological journals, as well as to virtually all Festschrifts for noted archaeologists and Near Eastern scholars published in recent years; contributor through many years of service to ASOR and AIAR as a Trustee of both, Director of AIAR; ASOR Vice President for Archaeological Policy, Editor of BASOR; Editor of the ASOR Annual; and I could go on but it would be a very long evening.
Simply speaking it is impossible to find anyone of my generation who has made greater contributions to our discipline as a field archaeologist and as a teacher/scholar than Bill Dever. As I have oft said, Bill wanted to be a great archaeologist in the worst way-and he has succeeded brilliantly. Humor aside, I am extremely proud to present Bill Dever, friend, colleague, leader and mentor, this first ASOR P.E. MacAllister Field Archaeology Award for his outstanding career contributions to our discipline.
[Dr. William Dever resides in Tucson, Arizona where he is a Professor of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona. ]
Eric M. Meyers
Recipient of the 1997 G. Ernest Wright Publication Award
(Presented by Lydie Shufro)
The American Schools of Oriental Research are proud to present the 1997 G. Ernest Wright Publication Award to Eric M. Meyers. Eric, a member of ASOR for three decades, has over the years served the organization in a multitude of ways. He has participated in the work of virtually every ASOR Committee, including service on the Committee for Archaeological Policy and from l983 to1989 as First Vice-President for Publications and editor of Biblical Archaeologist. More recently, from 1990 to 1996 he served two terms as ASOR President. He currently is an elected Trustee. Eric has also served long term as a Trustee of the Albright Institute, of which he is a past Director. He currently is an AIAR Honorary Trustee.
Eric earned his Ph.D at Harvard as one of G. Ernest Wright 's students. He first excavated at Arad and then joined the Gezer Excavation with Bill Dever and Joe Seger before starting his own series of projects in the Galilee. For many years now his main interest has centered around ancient Synagogues in that region. He excavated at several sites in the Galilee including Khirbet Shema, Meiron, and Nabratein. For the past decade, he and his wife Carol have been co-directors of the Sepphoris Excavation, and of its field school. Their most magnificent find is the superb "Mona Lisa of the Galilee" mosaic.
Eric has pursued a very distinguished teaching career at Duke University where he has been involved in maintaining a strong Ph.D program. Many of his Ph.D students are now themselves engaged in successful careers. He is the author of numerous major publications, and has edited many more. But his most enduring contribution to the field will no doubt be his editorship of the five-volume Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Engage Eric in a conversation about archaeology, and sooner or later he will mention the name of G. Ernest Wright in a tone of reverence and awe, mixed with a great deal of affection and warmth. For his career-long contributions to ASOR publications work, and most specially for his editorship of the Oxford Encyclopedia project, it is only fitting that ASOR present its first G. Ernest Wright Publication Award to Eric M. Meyers.
[Dr. Eric Meyers resides in Durham, North Carolina where he is Professor of Religious Studies at Duke University.]
James H. Charlesworth
Recipient of the 1997 Frank Moore Cross Publication Award
(Presented by Joe Seger)
A native of St. Petersburg, Florida, Jim Charlesworth receive
d his Ph.D. from Duke University, and taught as a member of the Duke Department o
f Religion faculty from 1969 to 1984. Since then he has been Director of the International
Center on Christian Origins at Princeton Theological Seminary. Among other career experiences are included his participation in the l968 excavation at Tell Balatah, Shechem and on expeditions to Turkey in 1983, and to the Sinai in l985. For the Sinai project he served as a co-director. For the most part, however, he is a man of letters and texts, specializing most particularly in pseudepigraphic studies.
It is most appropriate that James Charlesworth receive ASOR's first Frank Moore Cross Publications Award for work on a volume that includes a contribution by Frank Cross himself. For his work as editor and author of Volume 1 of the Dead Sea Scrolls series Rule of the Community and Related Documents, Westminster John Knox Press, 1995, ASOR is proud to present this year's Frank Moore Cross Award for publication of materials on epigraphy, text and tradition to James H. Charlesworth.
[Dr. Charlesworth resides in Princeton, New Jersey where he is Director of the International Center on Christian Origins at Princeton Theological Seminary.]
Recipient of the 1997 W. F. Albright Award
(Presented by Lydie Shufro - accepted in Professor Swiny's absence by Professor Michal Artzy)
In 1978, ASOR founded the third of its overseas centers, the Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute (CAARI) in Nicosia, Cyprus. Stuart Swiny became the third Director of CAARI in 1980 and held that position for sixteen years. Under his directorship, the Institute prospered and expanded. He was instrumental in the purchase for CAARI of the prestigious Claude Schaeffer Library, in Memory of his father-in-law John Irton Wylde, with funds contributed by family members and friends. In 1987 when the CAARI Board of Trustees decided to acquire new facilities for the Institute, Stuart was instrumental in locating an arkhontiko spiti (patrician town house) on Andreas Demitriou Street, a beautiful example of Nicosia's architectural heritage. Throughout the extensive renovation process, Stuart worked very closely with the architect, building contractor and the CAARI Board to bring the project to a successful completion. He was at all times a hands-on supervisor, and on many occasions one would find him, tools in hand, helping the mason, carpenter, or painter in their endeavors.
Throughout his tenure, Stuart acted as a faithful facilitator for scholars working in Cyprus in their various dealings with the Cypriote authorities, as well as with US representatives. He kept himself up-to-date on all field work conducted, not only by American teams, but by all other foreign teams, and by the Cypriote Department of Antiquities.
The CAARI Summer Workshop Program that he initiated, has now become a much awaited yearly event. A couple of years ago he organized the international Res Maritimae conference, the proceedings of which are now being published by ASOR. He organized and conducted a very successful ASOR/CAARI tour of the island in 1984, in which I participated, and in some ways it is because of that trip that I myself became involved with ASOR. Stuart was actively engaged in fund raising on behalf of CAARI in the United States, and in promoting the Institute at every possible opportunity.
Finally, it would be impossible to think of CAARI under Stuart's Directorship without mentioning his wife Laina. Together they created a very warm, congenial and collegial atmosphere at the Institute for Fellows and visitors. In addition, Laina made her very own contributions to CAARI. Through her direct involvement during the renovation of the Andreas Demitriou house and her special role in coordinating the furnishings and decoration, she helped preserve the ethnic character of the building. And it was Laina who, following landscaping plans drawn by her sister-in-law and CAARI Trustee, Patty Wylde, planted and created the magnificent CAARI garden.
Stuart first came to Cyprus in 1969 as archaeologist/diver with the Kyrenia Ship excavation. This was the official reason. The reality was that he sought Aphrodite's help to win the attention of a certain young lady, fellow student at the Institute of Archaeology, in London, who was the underwater architect on the staff of the Kyrenia Ship Expedition. As the saying goes, the rest is history!
I am delighted and indeed proud to present one of the 1997 W. F. Albright Awards to Stuart Swiny for his outstanding leadership tenure, and special support contributions to the Cyprus American Archaeological Research Institute.
[Stuart Swiny resides in Dover , Massachusetts. He teaches in the Department of Classics of the State University of New York - Albany, where he founded and is the Director of the Institute of Cypriot Studies.]
Artemis A. W. Joukowsky
Recipient of the 1997 W. F. Albright Award
(Presented by Joe Seger)
Some years ago, in 1989 or 1990, during the early part of my term as President of AIAR, Larry Geraty approached me at a CAORC meeting in Washington, where he was representing ACOR. He extended news that Artie Joukowsky had agreed to accept the position as ACOR president. I was crestfallen. Artie was then an Albright Institute Trustee, and it had been imagined, hoped, dreamed by Joy Mayerson and I that Artie might at some point succeed her as Chair of the Albright Board. In time I managed to recover from that disappointment and have come to appreciate the greater wisdom of his ACOR appointment for the welfare of both ACOR and ASOR.
Artie was perfect for the job. He was familiar with the Middle East region through business involvements; was married to Martha Sharp Joukowsky who has well-established her own status as a world class archaeologist; and was a long time friend of Patricia and Pierre Bikai. And along with all this he brought a clear headed, deliberate and vital leadership style. Artie has indeed well fulfilled all promise in leading ACOR, both in helping with its development of dynamic programs, and by assisting and challenging its Board in the work of establishing the center's financial stability. And he did all this while also serving as Assistant to the Chancellor and now as Chancellor of Brown University. But my favorite image will remain that of Artie as driver, tour guide and genial host, not to mention photographer and general handyman on the Petra Southern Temple Dig.
It pleases me greatly to present to Artemis A. W. Joukowsky, one of the 1997 ASOR W. F. Albright Awards for his outstanding leadership and support of the American Center of Oriental Research.
[Artemis Joukowsky resides in Providence, Rhode Island where he serves as Chancellor of Brown University.]
R. Thomas Schaub
Recipient of the 1997 ASOR Membership Service Award
(Presented by Lydie Shufro)
Tom Schaub, a longtime member of ASOR , has over the years served the organization in a multitude of ways. He currently is an elected member of the ASOR Board of Trustees, Chair of Publications Oversight on the ASOR Finance Committee, and is ASOR's representative for the Endowment for Biblical Research joint AAR/SBL/ASOR Annual Lectureship program. He was for many years a member of the ASOR Committee on Archaeological Policy, has served on the Nominating Committee and on the Publications Committee. From 1993 to 1996 he was First Vice-President for Publications. In 1987 he was one of the six members on the ASOR Presidential Search Committee. He has served several terms as a Trustee of the American Center of Oriental Research. Tom is also the co-director, together with Walter Rast of the ASOR-affiliated expedition to the Dead Sea Plains.
Tom Schaub is well-respected and known to be a quiet, well-mannered, soft-spoken, gentle, cool, rational gentleman. But think twice! An interesting entry in the CAP Field Tour report three years ago relates the following incident. Tom, together with two other colleagues who requested anonymity, had dinner in a very nice restaurant in Amman. The bill seemed very high and Tom insisted that the waiter explain the charges one by one. The dish of almonds-not ordered-costing two dinars, and the beer which on the menu was described as "bira khabir," a large beer, but turned out to be only a regular twelve ounce can, at a cost of two-and-a-half dinars, were the culprits. The argument was settled when the manager agreed to remove the service charges to reduce the bill, but then suggested sweetly that a nice tip be left for the help! One of the other two members of this dinner party, for fear of being recognized, has not returned to this restaurant-a favorite for a long time-since. But, I have no doubt that it was based on this CAP report that Tom was appointed Chair of Publications Oversight on the Finance Committee.
We are indeed most grateful to Tom Schaub for his many contributions to the work of ASOR through the years. I am very proud to present him with one of the 1997 ASOR Membership Service Awards.
[Tom Schaub resides in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He is Professor of Religious Studies at Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania.]
Recipient of the 1997 ASOR Membership Service Award
(Presented by Joe Seger)
Carolyn Draper-Rivers represents one of that very special class of ASOR members who began as an excavation volunteer participant, fell prey to the allure of dirt archaeology, and has made it a life long pursuit. Carolyn has dedicated most summers for the past decade and more to archaeological field work most notably at Tell Miqne, and now with the Madaba Plains project at Tell Umeri. But for her that has not been enough! A teacher at Archbishop Ryan High School in Philadelphia, she has waged a crusade on behalf of ASOR with regard to outreach education on archaeology for Secondary School Teachers. She has managed to sustain this initiative in conjunction with our annual meetings now for the past five years. She has done the recruiting of participants, and all the coordination and organizing of arrangements with local groups virtually single handed. And her efforts have been warmly received by workshop participants across the country.
ASOR is justifiably proud of this work and of the new frontiers for public education in archaeology it is exploring. It is therefore a great pleasure to honor Carolyn Draper-Rivers for her outstanding work with one of the 1997 ASOR Membership Service Awards.
[Carolyn Draper-Rivers resides in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where she teaches at the Archbishop Ryan High School. ]
The CAP ASOR Endowment for Biblical Archaeology will make several small grants available to successful applicants through ASOR-affiliated projects. Applications may be made for support for a staff member's travel for an excavation season, purchase of needed equipment, support for a conference in the U.S. to prepare for an excavation season, support for prepublication activity, or student participation on a project. Letters of application should not exceed three typescript pages, containing project name, full information on applicant, amount requested, use of the funds and manner inwhich they will contribute to furthering the project. A brief report following up the project will be due for the CAP meeting in 1998. Address letters to Prof. Walter E. Rast, Chair CAP, Department of Theology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383. Due date for applications: February 9, 1998.
BIRAN TALK HIGHLIGHTS FUND RAISING DINNER
On the evening of Tuesday, November 18, over seventy members and friends enjoyed a wonderful evening of good food and fellowship at ASOR's first Annual Fund Raising Dinner at the Napa Valley Marriott Hotel. Organized by the Development Committee, the proceeds from dinner contributions will be dedicated to support of ASOR's Centennial program activities. ASOR Trustee and former Board Chairman, Gough W. Thompson, Jr. served as Honorary Host for the festive occasion. In introductory remarks he reminisced briefly on the progress and continuing good work of ASOR and its affiliated centers.
The evening's highlight was the featured talk by Dr. Avraham Biran, Director of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology in Jerusalem. In introducing the speaker, Dr. Sy Gitin, Director of the W. F. Albright Institute, reviewed the highpoints of Dr. Biran's outstanding career, noting specially that some sixty years ago, from 1935 to 1937, a Dr. A. Bergman (now Biran) was Thayer Fellow at the Jerusalem School. Dr. Biran's talk "Biblical Archaeology Then and Now" proved to be a most informative and delightful parade of reminiscences from his life's experience as an active archaeological scholar and antiquities administrator. When in 1937 Biran (Bergman) foreshortened his tenure as Thayer Fellow to take a position with the Government of Palestine as District Officer in Galilee, W. F. Albright wrote in BASOR "His knowledge of the country and people, together with his native command of Hebrew and Arabic, will stand him in good stead. In the course of his administrative work he will undoubtedly have many opportunities to advance our knowledge of Palestinian archaeology and topography." (BASOR No. 67, October, 1937, p. 33.) Avraham Biran has more than lived up to Albright's prediction. The ASOR family was most sincerely appreciative for this very special opportunity to celebrate with him his recounting of a shared history, and is most honored to count him as one of its own.
Joe D. Seger
It may be too soon for a fully objective evaluation of the 1997 Annual Meeting in Napa but there were a number of undoubted high points. Among these were the very successful Fund Raising Dinner, which provided start-up funds for our Centennial program activities, and the festive Grand Reception with its program of special member honors and awards. At the same time, attendees enjoyed a very full and diverse program of professional papers in circumstances that were convenient and accommodating both for academic exchanges and for social discourse. In addition, while it is somewhat difficult to compare attendance figures with those of previous years (Joint Ventures kept no records of ASOR registration in 1996, and the numbers for prior years averaging just above 200 likely did not include some participants who in those years did not identify themselves as ASOR affiliated) the registration of more than 350 individuals must be considered very respectable indeed for a first independent meeting. Moreover, while the expense figures have not yet been fully "crunched," it does appear ASOR fared somewhat better and certainly no worse regarding Annual Meeting costs than in the several years immediately past.
Yet it was obvious from the many expressions of concern at the Members Meeting that ASOR's "rite of passage" as a member-based society will not be easy. As noted by Trustee Wally Aufrecht during the discussions, ASOR is in transition, struggling to more deliberately define its identity and purpose. He questioned whether this identity should now be sought in connection with the Annual Meeting rather than with the overseas centers and publications as previously. His is the right question, though the premise, which suggests an either/or conclusion is not correct.
A brief recitation of ASOR's history as related to Annual Meetings might be useful here. As first formed, ASOR clearly had dual purposes: 1) to foster overseas field explorations and investigations; and 2) to stimulate scholarly discourse about and dissemination of the results of related researches. For most of this century, ASOR fulfilled these charges through support of overseas work and by the establishment of centers and area committees on the one hand, and by the development of a strong program of professional publications on the other. However, until well past mid-century, ASOR's meetings were exclusively those of its Board and committees for business affairs. Scholarly discourse was carried on largely in print and through individual member participation in the professional meetings of sister societies. Some of us will recall that in the early 1960s the "ASOR program" at SBL meetings consisted only of one late afternoon session on dig reports.
Much has happened in the ensuing thirty or so years. Jet travel has made the world smaller, providing opportunities for the involvement of many more scholars, students, and other interested adults in archaeological field research; related undergraduate academic programs in bible, religion, history, anthropology, and art history have vastly proliferated and expanded especially within state university systems across the country: professional societies supporting these disciplines have enjoyed a huge growth in memberships; and archaeology as a separate discipline has emerged with defined research methods and approaches that are now in common practice world wide. Within ASOR, as in academe generally, this has resulted in the development of an increasing number of new and younger scholars for whom archaeology is either a primary career discipline, or at least their primary area of academic research.
While remaining true to its founding goals, ASOR has responded well to these developments. Its work overseas has greatly expanded. It now has some sixty and more regularly affiliated field projects; the three centers it has parented now each has lively independent programs that provide services to large numbers of scholars and students each year; and its own area committees continue to support and look after member interests in other Middle East regions. At the same time, ASOR's publication program is stable and prospering, and continues to explore new avenues for communication of ASOR's scholarship.
This of course didn't all just happen! Through these past years many, many thousands of hours of volunteer and professional effort, by an increasing cast of trustees, officers, and committee members, along with directors and staff assistants at home and abroad have been involved. And paralleling this growth in ASOR's "working membership" has been also the expansion of interest among all its members for more discourse on the widening range of field activities and on its increasingly diverse and more discrete areas of scholarly interest. It is not surprising then that our organization now must support a meeting such as that at Napa, with some thirty board, committee, and other group sessions; along with another thirty-three professional program units involving over 150 presentations by individual American and international scholars.
It appears to me that the answer to Dr. Aufrecht's question is, if you will excuse the pun, rather academic. Of course ASOR's identity is vested with its Annual Meeting. It is the annual reunion of our extended family; it provides an opportunity for us to celebrate together points of success and progress; it offers the forum within which we can work in concert to frame our mutual objectives and renew our focus on the discipline and its future. It has indeed become a very important and formative occasion, and it is therefore crucial that ASOR does its best to make sure that its Meeting takes place in the very best circumstances possible.
It is now but three years since the ASOR Corporation and Board effected revisions in its bylaws making ASOR, after more than ninety years of existence, into a true member-based society. Included in those changes was the establishment of the Committee on Annual Meeting and Program (CAMP) as a third major operating committee along side those for overseas work (CAP) and publications (COP). Its creation suggests no loss of interest in digs and publications, but does provide needed recognition with respect to the growth in importance of our Annual Meeting efforts. And the success of this new committee in fulfilling the 1996 Membership and Board-directed mandate to organize an independent meeting by the preparation and management of the outstanding program in Napa does indeed deserve special accolades.
But discussions and decisions at the Napa meeting have left us with considerable uncertainty with respect to the directions of future meetings. Based on a concluding resolution at the Members' Meeting, and preempting earlier Executive Committee action approving plans for a 1998 meeting in late October in Memphis, the Board of Trustees passed two motions related to CAMP's work in this regard. CAMP and the Executive Committee were advised: 1) To explore the feasibility of meeting sequential to, or concurrent with, the SBL in Orlando in November, 1998; and 2.) To explore the possibilities for a meeting in the spring of 1999, should the Orlando option prove too costly. At the same time the Board requested the president, along with the CAMP special SBL liaison subcommittee, to meet with SBL leadership to explore prospects for future cooperation and coordination with that society. These actions added a substantial burden, and significant complications to CAMP's work, but efforts on each of these tasks was carried forward immediately. Although the time pressures are great, it is hoped that a decision on plans for the next meeting can be concluded in time for a report to be provided in this Newsletter issue.
Whatever the decision taken, however, it is clear that as ASOR moves through and into the second century of its life, changes and adjustments in its Annual Meeting program and schedule will be needed. Will ASOR move forward to more fully realize its own identity and potential? I sincerely hope so! But with this will come difficult choices both for its individual members with respect to their personal and professional interests, and for its leadership with respect to the welfare of the society as a whole. You can be assured that the ASOR leadership will continue to be responsive to the needs of the membership, and will strive to provide the best possible circumstances in which to carry forth our annual program and meeting sessions. But know also that the patience, encouragement, support and commitment of all members will likewise be required if a meaningful future is to be secured.
Joe D. Seger, President, December 15, 1997
RAST REQUESTS SHORTENED TERM AS CAP CHAIR
In a letter to President Seger dated December 9 Walter Rast requested that his term as Chair of the Committee on Archaeological Policy be completed on July 1 of 1998, one year short of the normal three year assignment. Dr. Rast cited the increasing demands of CAP responsibilities and concerns regarding publication obligations for his excavation work as reasons for stepping down. He noted that many CAP procedures and methods of operation need to be reviewed and, in the process, the new leadership should have the opportunity to lead the committee in important, new and exciting directions.
In a December 15 response, President Seger reluctantly agreed to Dr. Rast's request, at the same time expressing to him very special thanks for his many contributions through several terms of service in leading CAP. Rast has agreed to remain on the committee through the completion of his normal term to June 30, 1999 and hopes that the new Chair will be able to travel with him for the annual CAP tour of sites this coming summer.
Nominations for the Chairmanships of the Committee on Archaeological Policy and of the Committee on the Annual Meeting and Program are now being solicited. Nominations should be submitted to the Chairman of the Nominations Committee, Dr. Randall Younker, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104; Tel. (6l6) 47l-7771; Fax (616) 471-3108; E-mail younker@ andrews.edu. Nominations will close March 1, 1998 following which ballots will be distributed to all members by mail. It is hoped to have all balloting completed by April 1, 1998. Announcement of election results will be made at the Spring meeting of the Board of Trustees in Washington, DC on May 2.
The Trustees of the Albright Institute are proud to announce that the Albright Institute has, for the first time in its history, been awarded a Challenge Grant by the National Endowment for the Humanities in the amount of $2 million. This is a three-to-one match: the Albright needs to raise $1.5 million against which NEH will grant $500,000. Under the terms of the grant, $1 million is for the endowment of the position of the Institute Director, $900,000 for the endowment of the Library, and $100,000 for computerization of the Library. It is important to note that the money raised for this match must be specifically designated as matching funds made in response to the NEH Challenge Grant and received before July 31, 2001.
Many people contributed to the success of this project. The Trustees wish to express their appreciation particularly to Dr. Sy Gitin, Dorot Director of the Institute; to Dr. Sidnie White Crawford and the AIAR Long-Range Planning Committee; to Dr. Stephen Ross of the Challenge Grants Office, Dr. Fred Winter, Dr. John Spencer, and Dr. Stephen Urice for their advice.
Special thanks go to Dr. Joe Seger who wrote the earlier version of the grant proposal and who was always available to give suggestions and counsel.
Finally, the Albright owes a great debt of gratitude to the late Joy Ungerleider-Mayerson, former Chairman of the Board of the Albright, and to Trustees Richard Scheuer and Ernest Frerichs. Their vision, wise counsel, financial support and selfless dedication have provided guidance to the Institute Board of Trustees for many years.
At a time of dwindling government funding, we are honored that the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research has been selected to receive a $2 million National Endowment for the Humanities Challenge Grant. The Trustees have re-affirmed their strong commitment to the vision of the Albright in its role as a premier research center. The success of the NEH Challenge Grant will provide the financial support needed to help ensure the future of Near Eastern research and archaeology at the Albright into the next century.
Anyone wishing to contribute matching funds can send a check, made out to the Albright Institute NEH Challenge Grant, to Dr. Patty Gerstenblith, President Albright Institute, DePaul University College of Law 25 E. Jackson Blvd Chicago, IL 60604-2287. The Albright Institute is a not-for-profit, section 501(c)(3) organization. Contributions are tax-deductible to the extent of the law.
W. H. Holden Gibbs, a vice president for liability management at Mercantile-Safe Deposit and Trust Co. who contributed much of his time to civic causes, died of cancer in early November at his home in Sparks, Maryland. He was 65.
The following resolutions were presented as part of the Executive Director's report and passed unanimously by the Board of Trustees of the American Schools of Oriental Research on Thursday, November 20, 1997 in Napa, California.
"I would like to offer a memorial resolution for W. H. Holden Gibbs, who served as treasurer of ASOR from December, 1987 through November, 1997. Holden will be greatly missed for the calm, deliberate, dedicated and efficient business manner that he always exhibited, for his unassuming nature and an overriding concern for individuals that was exhibited in his kindness and compassion. He was always available when needed with solid advice and good business sense in an academic environment that was often far from practical. He was urged to accept his position with ASOR by the President of the Mercantile Bank of Baltimore, where he worked as Vice President for liability management, at the urging of then ASOR Board of Trustees Chairman Gough Thompson. Even though his background in Near Eastern Archaeology was minimal at first, his broad interests and curiosity led him to ever increasing interest in the field. His tours of the area served to heighten his interest and if he had lived longer, I was hopeful of having him join the excavations at Tell Qarqur as a volunteer.
Holden saw ASOR through some of its most difficult financial times as ASOR programs had far outpaced their resources and it became imperative to set this right. ASOR had involved itself in many more projects than its dwindling income could support and the financial structure of ASOR needed major revisions. Holden was key to charting a course that stemmed the deficits and brought fiscal responsibility with "bare-bones" budgets. Through this all he was very hands-on, so that he would be sure everything worked. Number one among his concerns when reviewing monthly obligations was that funds needed to meet payroll were to be available first. ASOR's fiscal responsibility required moving ASOR from a unified budget that combined office operations, publications and overseas center support, to defining specific revenue streams and developing the capacity of each of the overseas centers to practice the independence their separate identities required.
We will miss Holden's guiding hand in financial matters and will miss him as a good friend.
I would like to ask for a second to this resolution and that we vote by all standing in Holden's honor.
I would like to offer a second resolution in this respect: I move that a memorial fund be established in the name of W. H. Holden Gibbs to provide support for archaeological excavation in the Middle East and that when a sufficient corpus has been established, that the proceeds of this fund (less ten percent returned to principal) be dispensed through ASOR's Committee on Archaeological Policy."
The annual ASOR Outreach Education program was held at the Archaeological Research Facility, University of California, Berkeley, California, immediately following the conference at Napa. Carolyn Draper Rivers, ASOR, presided with the assistance of Sonya Suponic of the host site. The session was entitled "Beyond Popular Mythology: An Archaeological Update on the Ancient Near East: A Workshop for Teachers and the Public." The goals of the session were to:
1. Provide information about current developments within the field of archaeology in the ancient Near East;
2. Provide hands on workshops with information the teachers can bring back to the classroom.
Joe Seger, President of ASOR, delivered the welcome to open the session and was the first speaker. His topic, "Israelite Origins: Conquest or Assimilation?" was a familiar one to scholars in the field, but not always to the general public. He supplemented his talk with an exercise on drawing pottery from shards to illustrate the difficulty in reconstructing complete pots from fragmentary remains.
Following that talk on the Conquest, Diana Edelman spoke on "The Exodus in History, Tradition and the Modern Imagination." This talk was a mini case study of literary analysis using handouts of Exodus 14 and 15 to guide the audience through the exercise of dealing with multiple versions and in poetry and prose of the same event and what these different perspectives might mean.
With the next presentation, the session entered the world of high tech. Neal Bierling used his computer to access a slide library maintained by Phoenix Data, a company he established. His subject was "Giving the Philistines Their Due," an attempt to redress the often pejorative image of their very name. He drew on slides from his own long-term involvement with the Tel Miqne-Ekron excavations as well as other sources to show that the Philistines were an urban and civilized people who had built a successful culture that lasted for 600 years in the Levant.
The next speaker, Peter Feinman, continued with the high tech approach in his paper on "Cosmos and Chaos: Kings of Unity in the Ancient Near East." He used video excerpts from the movie Independence Day to illustrate the ancient stories of cosmos and chaos. He showed that the movie contained the traditional motifs that would have been familiar to peoples of the ancient Near East. He focused on the mythical story of Marduk and Tiamat in Mesopotamia and the historical kings who regained the captured Marduk statue and the comparable Israelite stories of David and Goliath and the restoration of the ark at Zion.
The last speaker before lunch, Oystein LaBianca, sought to show that just as the Philistines had been maligned as a people of chaos, so too, the people east of the Jordan needed to be understood in their own right and not just from the perspective of Israel or the biblical record. He spoke on "The Rise and Fall of the Tribal Kingdoms in Iron Age Transjordan: The Ammonites, Moabites and Edomites." Part of his presentation focused on the continued existence of tribes and a tribal sense of identity even after the establishment of a kingdom-the old way doesn't simply die off because a new political structure has been established.
Following lunch, Richard Sneed spoke "About the Dead Sea Scrolls." In a comparatively short period of time, he led the audience through the fifty year history of Dead Sea scroll scholarship including the sites involved, the leading figures, the nomenclature for the manuscripts found, the relation of the discovered texts to the Hebrew Bible texts, the nonbiblical manuscripts discovered, the values of the community, and the controversies about who authored them and what they mean.
The final content speaker was James Strange who discussed "Archaeology and the New Testament Period: Some Issues and Recent Discoveries." Usually people associate the archaeology of the ancient Near East with much older periods, but Strange showed that there have been extensive excavations in the Galilee from the Hellenistic period to early Roman occupation. The Roman road system, sometimes building on older Iron Age routes, indicates that the area was not removed from the rest of the Roman world.
Two teacher workshops concluded the program: "Making Near Eastern Biblical Archaeology Come Alive: Simulating an Excavation in the Classroom" by Christine Nelson and "Experiencing Archaeology: A Hands-On Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School Classes" by Judith Cochran. These workshops are always popular and remind us that the local butcher can be an excellent source of artifacts for a classroom dig.
If you are interested in participating in the Outreach Education program next year or would like to know more about it, please contact Carolyn River Drapers at Cfdraper@aol.com. If your dig is on-line, please contact her also. We are looking for websites of current excavations and archaeologists willing to discuss the results of the ongoing work with school classes.
Because of time constraints that developed during the ASOR Membership Meeting at the annual meeting, institute directors were not able to present to the membership summaries of the state of their respective institutes. Here is a brief synopsis of CAARI activities during the 1996-1997 reporting year.
The success that CAARI has realized this past year and the volume of activity at the institute belie the fact that CAARI is the youngest and smallest of the three research centers affiliated with ASOR. Significant developments are summarized in the following categories:
Responding to a commitment to our mission that CAARI embraces the gamut of Cypriot studies as well as archaeological research, this last year we crafted a more expansive program which is offered to visiting scholars, residents, and the Cypriot community. The number of programmatic activities was increased this year, totalling 55 different events. The lecture series still remains the focus of the CAARI academic program, however, it's scope was enlarged to reflect the diversity of research agendas at the Institute. Lecture topics covered the chronological span from the Neolithic ("Rethinking the Aceramic Neolithic" by Dr. Carole McCartney - 1996 John Bartol Fellow) to the present ("Researching Refugees in Cyprus: A Progress Report" by Mr. Michael Mueller - Fulbright Fellow). Dr. Ian Todd was invited to give a retrospective of his work in the Vasilikos Valley ("The Vasilikos Valley Project: The First Twenty Years"), which was delivered to a packed house. CAARI was honored to host lectures by two distinguished senior scholars (Dr. Gisela Walberg, The Marion Rawson Professor of Aegean Prehistory in the Department of Classics at the University of Cincinnati -"The Excavation of the Megaron at Midea;" and Dr. Michal Artzy, University of Haifa - "Tel Nami, An International Trading Station in the Eastern Mediterranean"). The visiting scholar who came the furthest afield from the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan was Dr. Peter Matthews who delighted his audience with a discussion of everyone's favorite Cypriot vegetable-kolocasi ("Taro-Kolocasi in Mediterranean Food Culture").
This last year CAARI increased the number of field trips it offered to residents and visiting scholars. Trips are regularly scheduled to sites under excavation by foreign missions as well as to those currently being excavated by the staff of the Department of Antiquities. New field trip locations this year were to district archaeological museums and private collections.
In order to provide graduate students with a venue to discuss their research programs, CAARI has instituted lunch-time seminars. Following an illustrated slide presentation, a lunch is held at the institute for all participants, which allows for a relaxed exchange of information and ideas.
Every summer, CAARI hosts its Annual Summer Archaeological Workshop, and our latest (the fifteenth in the series) was the most successful. Twenty-four papers were delivered by directors of excavation teams working on the island (both foreign and Cypriot), and the audience numbered over 200-a record crowd. As is the tradition, in the evening CAARI hosted a party in the garden of the institute.
Planning and organization continues for the CAARI International Symposium "Engendering Aphrodite: Women and Society in Ancient Cyprus." The conference will be a five day affair, from 19-23 March 1998. The preliminary program has been drawn up and includes thirty-five speakers from twelve different countries. In addition to paper presentations, there will be workshops, a panel discussion on gender issues in contemporary Cypriot archaeology, and a field trip to the Sanctuary of Aphrodite at Palaepaphos and the Mosaics at Nea Paphos. Those who are interested in attending, please contact Nancy Serwint at CAARI (email: firstname.lastname@example.org or fax: 357-2-461147).
Although the number of fellowship recipients at CAARI is more modest compared to the other ASOR centers, CAARI Fellows add considerably to the academic and intellectual life of the institute. This year, our fellowship roster included:
Dr. Barbara Kling (NEH Fellow; Montclair State University) - Copper Production at the Bronze Age Site of Apliki
Dr. Mariusz Burdajewicz (Getty Fellow; National Museum of Warsaw) - Arms and Armor in Iron Age Cyprus
Mr. Michael Mueller (Fulbright Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate at the City University of New York) - Refugee Problems in Cyprus
Mr. Joseph Parvis (Fulbright Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Michigan) - Cypriot Response to British Colonial Administration of the Island as Seen through the Medium of Photography
Mr. Richard Dunn (Charles and Janet Harris Fellow; University of Delaware) - Geological Soundings at the Roman Harbor at Paphos
Fellows for the 1997-1998 academic year are:
Dr. Nicholas Stanley-Price (NEH Fellow; Institute of Archaeology, University of London) - The Development of Antiquities Sites Administration and Display in Cyprus
Dr. David Roessel (NEH Fellow; Princeton University) - Translation of Cypriot poet Costas Montis's CLOSED DOORS
Ms. Elizabeth Doering (Fulbright Fellow; School for the Arts at Boston University) - Ancient Figurative Ideals in Contemporary Cypriot Sculpture
Mr. John Leonard (Fulbright Fellow; State University of New York at Buffalo) - The Roman Harbors of Cyprus
Mr. Derek Counts (O'Donovan Fellow; Brown University) - The Stone Sculpture from Athienou-Malloura
CAARI is pleased to report that the institutional NEH Senior Fellowship has been renewed until June 2001, and the CAARI Board continues to explore the development of new fellowships for the Institute.
This last year, hostel occupancy increased, and we realized an occupancy of 26% over that reported for the previous year. Residents came for long and short-term stays and represented 20 different countries, reflecting an energetic cultural diversity.
CAARI continues to upgrade its facilities in order to accommodate the needs of visiting scholars. The library remains busy at all times, and several hundred readers from 23 different countries made use of the collection during the course of the year. Work is already underway to make the CAARI library catalogue accessible to library patrons via a computerized format, and within the next year the CAARI library holdings will be available through the Internet.
Through a donation secured this last year, renovation of the basement to create a working archaeological laboratory has begun. Built-in work units and storage space as well as a refrigerator, oven, microscope and requisite glassware will support laboratory analysis in a variety of archaeological disciplines.
The severe drought that has affected Cyprus for the last year continues to take its toll on water reserves on the island. CAARI has installed a second industrial sized water tank behind the institute to secure the availability of water at all times. The supply to the Institute, as has been the case throughout all of Nicosia, has been curtailed to only 3 1/2 days per week.
Archaeological exploration remains keen in Cyprus. A record number of foreign missions (32 this year) are conducting work on the island and CAARI continues to provide logistical support in the form of equipment rental, help in securing excavation permits, and availability of the Institute facilities for excavation teams.
CAARI RECORDS GRATITUDE TO P. E. MACALLISTER
CAARI is indebted to the generosity of Mr. P.E. MacAllister, Chairman of the ASOR Board of Trustees. His outright gift of $50,000 is a boon to the Institute, and the two to one match is another windfall. All of us associated with CAARI want P.E. to know how grateful we are to him. His generosity has helped galvanize our renewed commitment to fundraising both in the U.S. and Cyprus and we are pledged to the success of applications for matching grants.
CAARI ON THE WEB
All the CAARI staff extends an invitation to visit the Institute the next time your travel or research programs bring you to the eastern Mediterranean. We'd be delighted for you to stay in the hostel and make use of all the facilities CAARI has to offer. But if you can't come visit in person in the near future, pay us a visit of the World Wide Web. We're at: www.caari.org
Nancy Serwint, CAARI Director
1. Diachronic Change in the Natufian of the Levant: Thomas Berger, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Program in Anthropology, University of New Mexico.
2. An Archaeological Examination of the Paleo-Christian Baptisimal Fonts Within the Decopolis at Northern Jordan: David Clark, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; PhD Program in Archaeology, University of London, UK.
3. Editing of the Carbonized Papyrus Archive from Petra: Robert Daniel, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Professor in the Institut fÄr Altertumskunde, University of Cologne.
4. Coalitions and Economic Adjustment: Jordan and Morocco: Bryan Daves, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Program in Political Science, Columbia University.
5. Recreating Jerusalem: Oral Histories of Life in British Mandate Jerusalem (1917-1948): Rochelle Anne Davis, United States Information Agency Fellowship; Ph.D. Programs in Anthropology and Near Eastern Studies, Univ. of Michigan at Ann Arbor.
6. The Iconography of the Palace and Umayyad Dynastic Legitimacy at Qusayr'Amra: Elizabeth Gittings, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; PhD Program in History of Art and Architecture, Harvard University.
7. The Tell Madaba Project: Investigations of Urban Life in the Semi-Arid Highlands of Central Jordan: Timothy Harrison, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Chicago Oriental Institute.
8. The Impact of Environment and History on the Settlement Pattern of the Nabateans in Southwestern Jordan and the Negev: Sarah Harvey, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Candidate in Classical Archaeology, University of Michigan.
9. A Comparative View of the Development of Islamic Institutions in Amman and Jerusalem in the 1950s: Kimberly Katz, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Candidate, New York University.
10. Stepping In and Out of the System: The Changing Political Strategies of Jordanian Opposition Elites: Ellen Lust-Okar, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Candidate, University of Michigan.
11. Middle Eastern Women in Science: A Study of Science Education in Gender Separate Schools in Jordan: Robin McGrew-Zoubi, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post Doctoral Fellowship; Assistant Professor, Sam Houston State University.
12. Comparative Study of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Sanctuary Designs in the Levantine Region of the Eastern Mediterranean: William Mierse, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Associate Professor of Art History, University of Vermont.
13. Understanding Jordanian Exceptionalism: Mansoon Moaddel, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Associate Professor of Sociology, Eastern Michigan University.
14. Modernization and the Changing Social Supports, Needs, and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in Jordan: An Exploratory Study: Amiya Mohanty, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Professor of Sociology, Eastern Kentucky University.
15. The Analysis of Roman Architectural Deterioration in Jordan: Tom Paradise, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Hawaii at Hilo.
16. Hunter-gatherer Territories in the Epipalaeolithic of Jordan: Ann Pirie, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; PhD Candidate in Archaeology, University of Durham, UK.
17. Local Government in Jordanian Towns: 1921-1967: Michael Reimer, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Assistant Professor of Arabic Studies, American University in Cairo.
18. Hard Bargains: Elite Self-Interest, Two Level Games, and Conflict Resolution in the International System: Leonard Robinson, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; PhD Program in Political Science, University of Utah.
19. The Comparative Study of Post-Revivalist Islam: Ahmed Sadri, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Lake Forest College.
20. Neolithic Symbolism at 'Ain Ghazal: The Socioeconomic Significance: Denise Schmandt-Besserat, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellowship; Professor at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas at Austin.
21. Eliciting Jordanian Thoughts on Masculinity Through Popular Film: Trent Shipley, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; PhD Program in Cultural Anthropology, University of Arizona.
22. The Role of Islamic Private Voluntary Associations in Democratization in Jordan: Quintan Wiktorowicz, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship
PhD Program in Political Science, American University.
23. Human Rights and the Politics of Liberalization in Jordan Since 1989: Francis Oliver Wilcox, Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellowship; MA Program in Arab Studies, Georgetown University.
24. Portraying Nationalists: The Arab Press and Palestinian Women's Groups: Allison Wilke, United States Information Agency Fellowship; PhD Candidate in Near Eastern Studies, St. Antony's College, Oxford University, UK.
The Iconography of the Palace and Umayyad Dynastic Legitimacy at Qusayr 'Amra Elizabeth Gittings, Ph.D. Candidate in Fine Arts, Harvard University Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellow
My research project explored the architectural iconography and interior decoration of the early Islamic palace of Qusayr 'Amra, located in the bahdiya approximately 30 miles southeast of Amman, Jordan. My theoretical objective was to clarify paradigm(s) of rulership and dynastic identity in the Umayyad period, using Qusayr 'Amra, one of the best-preserved symbolic structures left to us by the Umayyads, as a case study. I concluded that the decorative program of Qusayr 'Amra emphasizes the prerogative of its noble patron and the legitimacy of his power and that of the Umayyad dynasty. Many of the motives in the fresco decoration of the small palace-bath represent the natural abundance of the earth and waters. They convey a sense of the rich domain of the patron, who manifests his hegemony through the symbolic theme of the great hunt, which is given pride of place on the upper walls. Moreover, the numerous images of women in the frescoes, another striking aspect of the 'Amra decorative program, extend the domain of the patron into the human dimension. Both frankly eroticized and hieratically enthroned, women signify the fruitfulness of the male patron's domain and his rightful power over it.
The iconography and composition of the 'Amra frescoes corresponds in many respects to that of early Byzantine mosaic pavements in Jordan and Syria. At Qusayr 'Amra, however, this well-developed regional iconography is used for a different purpose, not as a sacred symbol of the abundance of God's creation, as it is often in early Byzantine and early Christian churches, but as the sublimated (by virtue of previous sacred associations) expression of the domain of an Umayyad ruler and a new worldly hierarchy. I believe the impact of my research carried out at ACOR will prove to be significant. There has been little consideration of the phenomenon of female iconography in Umayyad palatial decoration, despite the fact that it is abundant and prominently displayed. My study of the 'Amra frescoes suggests that, within the canon of Umayyad representation, women are important signifiers of power and privilege, but primarily as emblems of the domain of the male ruler.
Methodologically, my analysis of the architecture and decoration of 'Amra was accomplished in a series of day trips to the site. On these site visits, I examined the fresco decoration in detail, taking note of the subjects represented, and analyzed the placement of various motifs within the overall composition and their spatial, formal, thematic, and symbolic relationship to one another. I also studied the relationship between the painted image and its architectural context. As a complement to my work on the site, I took color slides and black and white photographs of the frescoes. I also compared the iconography of 'Amra to that of contemporary Umayyad palaces in the region, including Mushatta, Qastal, Hallabat, Kharaneh, the Amman Citadel, Humeima, and Ayla. In many of these cases, the decoration is not preserved in situ and it was necessary to examine fragments in museums and storage facilities in Jordan. In Syria, I visited the sites of the early palaces of Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi and Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi off the Damascus-Tadmor road. The elaborate faÙade and sculpture, stucco, and fresco decoration of Gharbi is preserved at the National Museum in Damascus, where I had the opportunity to study the decoration closely and to take black and white photographs for reference. While in Damascus, I also visited the Great Umayyad Mosque and studied the imaginary palatial structures depicted in the wall mosaics.
The comparative framework required to analyze a decorative program of the sophistication and complexity as that of Qusayr 'Amra can only be gleaned from primary research in the field. In general, because they are often inaccessible to scholars and students, there is a great need for the empirical examination and documentation of Umayyad monuments.
Settlement during the Iron Age II Period in the Southern Levant: Economic Intensification and Subsistence Strategy Sarah Harvey, Ph.D. Candidate in Classical Archaeology, University of Michigan United States Information Agency Fellow
During my term as an United States Information Agency Fellow at ACOR I was able to further refine the topic and research approach of my Ph.D. dissertation. I also began the development of a database based on visits to key sites in Jordan and Israel and by incorporating the increasing amount of survey data coming from southern Transjordan and the central Negev Highlands. This database will form the basis of my original research, which will involve an analysis of settlement patterns and subsistence strategy in order to isolate the primary impetus behind the economic intensification in both regions.
Populations do not commonly settle in such hot, dry conditions. The marginal environmental conditions naturally constrain settlement in the southern Levant. Therefore, the analysis of settlement patterns must be accompanied by an environmental definition of each region. Climate, geology and geomorphology, hydrology and other regional resources, in addition to possible climatic change all affect the settlement pattern in each region. In particular, the population's ability to collect the meager rainfall is crucial to their ability to cultivate the land.
Research time at ACOR has allowed me to become more familiar with the terrain and key sites, to interact with scholars and archaeologists active in the region, and to have access to archaeological reports and regional maps that are not readily available in the United States. I was able to further refine my topic using these resources. Since returning, I have completed my analysis of the Central Negev Highlands, and am currently working on the Edomite plateau settlement.
Jordanian National Identity in the 1950s and the Influence of Jerusalem, as a city, on its Development
Kimberly Katz, Ph.D. Candidate, New York University
United States Information Agency Fellow
In the summer of 1997, I began research on a project addressing the formation of national identity-how new societies emerge, how they present themselves to the world at-large and how they begin to internalize their newly created identity. My work focuses specifically on the case of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan following its independence. Jordan, as a new state in the Middle East needed to develop an identity that would serve the entire population whether one was Muslim or Christian; Hashemite, Bedouin, Palestinian, Chechen or Circassian. Jordanian society, like all societies, whether in a country with a long documented history or a new state such as those that emerged in the Middle East after World War II, is rich in the layers found in society. Traditional historical studies relate events that occurred in a particular region, recorded by one element of the population, often the ruling one. This limited view of history provides little to no interpretation as to how those events affected the society at large.
In 1946 Jordan gained independence from Britain. While contemplating other ambitions, King Abdullah, the country's leader, had to create an identity, a Jordanian national identity, which would encompass the entire population living within boundaries fixed by the British mandate authority. In 1948, war broke out in British-mandate Palestine. From this, the State of Israel emerged and the boundaries of the newly independent Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan changed. What had previously been limited to the east bank of the Jordan River was now extended to include the west bank of the river and Jerusalem, the third holiest city in Islam. This region included sites of significant religious importance to each of the world's three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Christianity and Islam. For a country like Jordan with an overwhelming Sunni Muslim population, this would appear to have consequences for how the society might view itself and relate to the cities and sites within the borders of the country. Perhaps one might think that Jerusalem would have become the capital of Jordan, in place of the existing capital of Amman. One might expect that scholars studying this period would have considered Jerusalem's importance when examining Jordan's social and cultural makeup. One might also expect that Jerusalem, and the holy places located there, would have taken a central role around which Jordanian identity was constructed.
These first two did not occur and the third is understudied. Jerusalem never became the political capital of Jordan and the scholarly literature on Jordanian Jerusalem is almost nonexistent. Studies on Jordanian national identity is limited to the role of the tribes in Jordan. My study addresses this last topic-exploring how Jerusalem, as a site of great religious significance, factored into the ways in which the Jordanian government sought to present itself to its people, to other Arabs and Muslims, and to the global community.
Separate, But Equal?: A Study of Science Education In Gender Separate Schools in Jordan
Robin McGrew-Zoubi, Assistant Professor, Sam Houston State University
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellow
Jordan has taken an active approach in the education of young women, as have many Middle Eastern countries, and at present approximately one half of all students attending compulsory education are female. In 1994-95, 49% of the 1,248,664 pre-college students in Jordan were women, making it one of the more literate citizenries in the Arab world. Gender separate schools are the norm in this country with some mixed schools available in the private sector. In the school year 1993-94, 58% of the incoming students at Jordan University were women. All of the public universities register approximately 50% women in their student body making equal access to education a reality.
Jordan's pre-collegiate educational system stands at the threshold of a paradigm shift. The students presently attend schools that are very traditional in their approach to instruction and evaluation. Most classrooms are packed with approximately 50 students, and use government produced texts that support an educational diet of recollections of required facts, vocabulary, and science experiments. This paradigm supports students as empty slates waiting for teachers to write their knowledge upon them. A lecture-recitation methodology is practical for information giving. Assessment and evaluation of recalled information related to published diagrams, charts, and text encourages memorization of known information bits without the ability to apply the information appropriately.
The missing component in this paradigm required to facilitate the democratic oriented paradigm of learning is the opportunity for teachers and students to work together to pursue an original or open-ended problem. The ability to find solutions to original problems requires the opportunity to use learned facts and information in a problem-solving environment where active experimentation and multiple attempts toward a solution is possible.
This requires students to work and discuss together, and teachers to take on a role of facilitator of student thinking rather than dispenser of information. Collaboration in producing a product from the strengths of the group members is possible in a classroom where the teacher visits student work groups to interject appropriate questions that support student discussion and students operate as active receivers and manipulators of information in order to derive a viable and productive solution.
Facilities and supplies between boys' and girls' schools in Jordan seemed generally very similar and I realized no significant differences in the tangible aspects of the schools outside of building environment. Students and teachers in girls' schools tended to pay greater attention to cleanliness and decor than their male counterparts. It is important to note that there were outstanding students and teachers in each school. The girls tended to pride themselves on working very diligently on their school work, held academic goals for their future, and many of their teachers were working to incorporate more collaborative strategies in instruction. The girls often requested more opportunities for greater democracy in their schools (an opportunity to have some say in the decision making that affected them). Boys were more free to move about the community after school and tended not to focus on their school work to the same degree as the girls, fewer held academic goals for themselves. Approaches to discipline in the boys' schools seemed to be harsher and were less interested in using the collaborative strategies.
LATE BRONZE AND EARLY IRON AGE
IN THE LEVANTINE REGION
OF THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN
William Mierse, University of Vermont
The study of the temples and sanctuaries of the Levantine region is not a
new concern of archaeologists, architectural historians, and historians
of religion. Over the last three decades several scholars have looked at aspects related to this study, but in each of these cases the analysis has been directed to a restricted group of buildings such as the temples of Israel or has been focused narrowly on a topic like the prototypes of the Temple of Solomon. Such studies, while certainly useful, have not allowed the architectural history of the LBA and EIA to be brought into the larger discussion of the developments that mark this dynamic period in eastern Mediterranean history other than in a peripheral way.
This study is new in its scope and its concerns. All excavated remains that have been identified as possible sanctuaries are being considered in the region of the modern Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Jordan, and Israel. Fifty distinct structures have been isolated for this study, and the published reports cover almost a century of archaeological work in this area. In addition, two Middle Bronze Age structures have been considered because of their continued operation into the LBA. Such an expansive collection of the evidence allows for a true typology of structural types and features for the region to be created. These structures are analyzed as to structural elements, architectural furnishings, associated finds, physical setting, and historical context.
For the LBA temples and sanctuaries, this approach has also required a consideration of the architectural influences of Egyptian and Hittite forms, since these were the two major outside forces interfering in local developments. The situation for the EIA structures demands an examination of the nature of Aegean stylistic influences on the development of local forms as well as close comparative analysis of the LBA forms on the new EIA forms to determine points of convergence. This part of the analysis is a traditional comparative typological examination and is essential if the underlying patterns of the development are to be isolated.
Earlier studies have concentrated on building typologies with the intention of determining prototypes for individual structural types (i.e., the long-room temple or the migdal temple). This analysis moves away from the issue of prototypes and concentrates on the architectural dynamics themselves. The focus is on how the buildings relate to other structures. The other structures are both those that share the site and those with which the individual temple is most closely related formally. While the limited remains of LBA and EIA structures do pose problems, this analytical approach is already yielding results.
The second part of the analysis examines the meanings behind borrowed forms. This type of analysis requires that points in common between structures be examined beyond the level of noting the similarity. Points of convergence are often much more complicated than mere borrowings since they can reveal subtle, but important, aspects of difference that once seen begin to demand a reconsideration of the issue of borrowing or continuity. This is particularly important when trying to use artistic production as evidence for 1) local or non-local manufacture, 2) presence or absence of foreign influences, or 3) presence of new people. This approach to material culture has been used successfully within the context of anthropological studies and promises to provide an important tool for architectural historians as well.
The final concern of the analysis is with the contexts in which the sanctuaries operated. A religious building works on several levels within a social setting. These structures had an economic role as places that drew to them valuable commodities, which were then held back from normal circulation, helping to increase the value of the more limited items still on the market. They could work within the political sphere of kingship to reinforce the role of the ruler and to move him into a position closer to the divine. Ritual and access played parts in this function, and the differences in the designs of sanctuaries and their locations clearly indicate that not every sanctuary performed this job. Other sanctuaries may have been more tied to public rituals that would have involved the community as a whole. The temples could also be physical manifestations of a political reality: for example, the Egyptian designs of the Beth Shan sanctuaries that reminded the Canaanite residents of the Egyptian garrison and control of the city.
[Prof. Mierse was a Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellow at ACOR in 1997. For more ACOR 1997 Fellows' Reports, see inside.]
Understanding Jordanian Exceptionalism
Mansoon Moaddel, Professor of Sociology, Eastern Michigan University
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellow
The history of Islamic movement in Jordan displays glaring contrasts with its counterparts in such Middle Eastern countries as Algeria, Egypt, Iran, and Syria. In a marked departure from the frequent and bloody confrontations that have characterized the relationship between the state and Islamic opposition in these countries, the Jordanian movement, with the exceptions of some minor trends, has not only been predominantly peaceful and nonviolent, but also defended the state vis-a-vis the challenges of radical nationalist and leftist ideologies. With the emergence of political openness as a result of the launching of democratization process by King Hussein, the Jordanian Muslim Brothers participated in the democratic rule of the game in the 1989 elections and thereafter. What is more, to reconcile their belief in the sovereignty of the shari'a with the secular framework established by the state, the Brothers made a keen political move by forming the Islamic Action Front Party with the sole objective of participating in the democratic process within the existing framework of the electoral law. This pro-active move also had the benefit of providing additional political space for the more pragmatic and moderate minded Islamic activist, hindering the possibility of a split and thus maintaining the overall unity of the movement. This phenomenon is remarkable because the Jordanian Brothers have considerable ideological and organizational affinities with the Muslim Brothers of Egypt and Syria. And in terms of the social bases of support, there have been considerable similarities between the Jordanian Brothers and Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt, Iran, and Syria. Further, the Jordanian state shared with the Egyptian, Iranian, and Syrian states such features as being rentier, patrimonial, and authoritarian. Yet a peaceful cohabitation has characterized the relationship between the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Jordanian Muslim Brothers.
Evidently, the structural factors as well as hereditary monarchy and ties to the West by themselves do not adequately explain the distinctive features of the politics of religion in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, although some of the factors have been suggested as parts of the causes of the conflict between the state and religion in Egypt, Syria, and pre-Revolutionary Iran. How did the Jordanian state managed to maintain a lasting coalition with the Muslim Brothers despite its undeniably close, and often dependent, ties to the West? What prevented the formation of radical nationalist-religious alliance? What was the nature of the cultural space that made the cohabitation between the state and the Muslim Brothers possible? What were the basic themes and symbolism of the state ideology and their relationship with that of the Muslim Brothers?
In answering these questions, this paper argues that although the country shared some of the structural features underpinning the socioeconomic and political tensions in Egypt, Iran, and Syria, the influence of such features on state-religion relationship in Jordan was mediated by the same cultural universe that constituted both the Hashemite Kingdom and the Muslim Brothers. While the Brothers might have been disgruntled by the state's dependence on the West and authoritarianism, their ideological resolutions provided little justification to engage in a radical political movement against the monarch. Moreover, the challenges of such secular ideologies as Nasserism, Baathism, and Communism provided yet another favorable context for the state-religious alliance.
Modernization and the Changing Social Supports, Needs, and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly in Jordan: An Exploratory Study
Amiya Mohanty, Professor of Sociology, Eastern Kentucky University
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellow
This project is an exploratory study of the needs, support system (including various governmental and voluntary organizations), and the life satisfaction of the elderly in Jordan. Data were collected from 263 randomly selected elderly in small towns and rural areas of Jordan by face-to-face interview with the help of a structured questionnaire. According to their own report, more than 80% of the elderly were unemployed and most of them depended on their children and/or on retirement for financial support. Their average income was about 1,351 JD per year. More than 75% of the respondents reported their health condition to be excellent, good, or fair and only 3.5% rated their mental condition to be bad or very bad. They felt that family was the most important institution and that children were the ones who provided financial and emotional support, care in sickness, and help in daily life. The two most important needs they reported were health care and financial help. Finally, more than 84% of them were satisfied with life. Factors such as financial situation, health condition, feeling of loneliness, frequency of interaction with children and siblings, and having good friend(s) were associated with life satisfaction.
Furthermore, although the family is traditionally expected to care for the elderly, and parents refer to children as their old-age support, this source of support does not exist for all the elderly. A first step in future government planning should be to collect reliable and informative data about the elderly through systematic research. When data become available it will be possible to design appropriate policies to improve the situation of the entire elderly population. Thus, it is imperative that more research in the area of social gerontology be conducted both in academic and nonacademic settings so that effective planning and ameliorative programs for the elderly can be successfully implemented.
Topographic Influences on Sandstone Weathering in Petra, Jordan
Thomas R. Paradise, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, University of Hawaii at Hilo
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Post-Doctoral Fellow
Nabatean occupation of Petra, Jordan from the third century BCE to Roman annexation in the early second century CE, brought about tremendous culture, commerce, city-building, and architecture. Many of their structures and tombs were not constructed but hewn directly from the local Paleozoic sandstones. Before the carving was undertaken, the Nabatean dressed these reddish and buff-colored rock surfaces with tool techniques similar to Roman stone-dressing, although in a uniquely Nabatean herringbone pattern dating from the first century BCE to the first century CE. These dressed surfaces are found throughout the Valley of Petra and represent excellent surfaces for weathering influence and rate analysis since their exposure span is known, and they have been recorded as unmoved and unaltered.
The sandstone surfaces of Petra's twin obelisks, fourth dijn block at Bab-al-Siq, and Nasara Quarry were studied for varying aspects and their associated weathering-induced characteristics. The dressed faces were chosen for their relatively unobscured surfaces of consistent dressing, vertical surfaces, easy access, and relatively unmodified surfaces since their exposure. Using the original Nabatean dressed surfaces as false data, weathering features (e.g., rillen, tafoni, alveoli) were measured on the wall surfaces.
These dressed faces (block, obelisks, quarry surfaces) exhibited weathering features, dimensions and recession associated with aspectual influences. Northern aspects showed the least weathering with 90 (+/- 15) percent of the original stone-dressing apparent with no recesses exceeding 2 cm in any dimension. The relatively minor weathering occurring on northern faces can be attributed to (i) decreased surface erosion and increased surface weathering from lichen attachment since lichens were rarely found on other aspects, and (ii) decreased solar flux and consequently less frequent wetting and drying cycles. Southern aspects displayed 40 (plus/minus 10) percent of the original dressing remaining with scarce tafoni rarely exceeding 15 cm in dimension. The increased surface recession on south-facing surfaces can be attributed to increased solar flux increasing diurnal heating and cooling cycles. Western and eastern aspects, however, displayed the greatest surface recession-with minimal remaining original Nabatean stone-dressing (less than 10 percent) and numerous tafoni (discrete pocket cavities) often exceeding 20 cm. This increased weathering can be attributed to the ideal diurnal and annual balance that occurs on these faces. Moisture availability is increased (as compared to southern faces), while insolation exposure is increased (as compared to northern faces) because of the surface's half-day exposure to solar flux. This finding supports previous research that eastern, southern, and western faces commonly exceed summer surface temperatures of 50 degrees centigrade (a threshold temperature for calcium-rich sandstone matrices), while still receiving contact moisture from diurnal dew (when relative humidities are high enough) or from seasonal precipitation. Previous research has shown the efficacy of wetting/drying and heating/cooling in the weathering of sandstone in arid regions. This ongoing research, however, is clarifying the unique balance between moisture and insolation-induced weathering through the comparison of differing aspects on similar sandstones under the same microclimatic influences-a previously obscure relationship.
Hard Bargains: Elite Self-Interest, Two Level Games, and Conflict Resolution in the International System
Leonard Robinson, Ph.D. Candidate in Political Science, University of Utah
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Pre-Doctoral Fellow
The Near and Middle Eastern Research and Training Pre-Doctoral Fellowship provided me with the unique opportunity to interview a number of individuals who were directly involved in the peace negotiations between Jordan and Israel in the early 1990s, including Jordanian Prime Minister Abdul Salam al-Majali, former top Rabin aide Eitan Haber, and US Ambassador to Jordan Wesley Egan. The interviews that I conducted in the Middle East proved to be an invaluable source of information, and provided a unique insight into the interests and objectives that informed the policy choices of state leaders during the negotiations.
In summarizing the findings of my field research, it seems clear that progress in the Israeli-Jordanian talks hinged significantly on Israel's negotiations with the Palestinians and Syria. In Israel, following the election of Yitzhak Rabin in June 1992, the Labor Party government focused its attention primarily on the Palestinian and Syrian tracks of the peace process, thus placing the talks with Jordan on the "back burner" for an extended period. At the same time, in Jordan the regime was quite sensitive to the possibility that any final agreement between Israel and the other Arab parties might come at Jordan's expense, and in particular might result in Jordan being shut out of the economic rewards that were expected to flow to the peacemakers in the region from the US and other western sources.
Thus, in the late spring of 1994, as progress was being achieved on the other tracks, King Hussein made the strategic decision to move Jordan's negotiations with Israel forward, at least partially, in order to strike a final settlement with Israel before either the Palestinians or Syrians could do the same. The stalemate on the Israeli-Jordanian track ended during the summer of 1994, and the peace treaty was quickly signed between the parties in October of that year.
The findings of my research support the hypothesis that state leaders are more willing to take policy risks when they calculate that doing so will avert or minimize possible losses to those things which they value. In this case, Israel was not terribly motivated to move away from the status quo relationship that had developed with Jordan since 1967, a relationship that was characterized by formal conflict, yet functional cooperation on certain issues of mutual interest to the two parties, as well as by a strategic balance of power which clearly favored Israel. On the other hand, Jordan's leadership was faced with potentially serious economic and political losses in the early 1990s as a result of the country's structural economic problems, the hostile response by the Gulf States and the West toward King Hussein's balanced stance during the 1990-91 Persian Gulf Crisis, and the loss of Jordan's highly profitable economic relationship with Iraq in the wake of that crisis. Thus, it was the Hashemite regime in Jordan, much more so than the Rabin government in Israel, that pressed the notion of "risking" a peace agreement between the parties.
Aspects of Neolithic Symbolism at 'Ain Ghazal
Denise Schmandt-Besserat, Professor at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas at Austin
Near and Middle East Research and Training Program Senior Post-Doctoral Fellow
In February through May of 1996, I continued my analysis of symbolism at the site of 'Ain Ghazal, located on the outskirts of Amman, Jordan. I define symbols as artifacts used by the community to express and convey certain conceptions of their world view. These symbols may be realized in "plastic art," anthropomorphic and zoomorphic representations in plaster, clay and stone; plastered human skulls; tokens of various shapes and sizes used as counters; and painted motifs found on architectural features.
In addition to continuing the catalog work and study of the 'Ain Ghazal material stored in the Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Yarmouk, Irbid and in the Amman Museum, I visited parallel assemblages in the Israel and Rockefeller Museums in Jerusalem and the Cyprus Museum in Nicosia.
The final analysis and comparative study of the unique and rich assemblage of symbolic representation from 'Ain Ghazal promises to provide new insights into Neolithic cultures, and in particular their ways of communicating economic data as well as the supernatural. A preliminary report on this research has appeared in Expedition (1997) vol. 39, no.1: 48-58. The final report will be published as a volume entitled Symbols at 'Ain Ghazal, Excavation report, Vol. 1.
W. F. ALBRIGHT INSTITUTE ANNUAL PROFESSOR 1996-1997
Analysis and Publication of Tell el-Hesi: Fields I and III
Jeffrey A. Blakely, Archeological Assessments, Inc., and University of Wisconsin-Madison
Twenty-five years ago as a college student I came to Israel to participate in a once in a Iifetime adventure-I was to be a student excavator at Tell el-Hesi, and for my work I was to receive college credit. This adventure took a very surprising turn when, a few years later, I decided to follow a career in archaeology. Seven summers at Tell el-Hesi, seven summers at Caesarea Maritima, five winters in Wadi al-Jubah (Yemen), one hot summer with the Roman Aqaba Project (Jordan), and countless projects in North America and it is clear that my summer adventure at Tell el-Hesi changed my life. All through these twenty-five years I have been passing through the Albright Institute as a summer warrior, as it were, a transient, who digs during summer vacation and then goes home. For most of these years I had dreamed about spending an entire year at the Albright doing some research project, learning more about my discipline, and experiencing the community of scholars as well as the change of seasons I had only read about. My graduate programs, my job, and my family all conspired to prevent such a renewed adventure until this year-my job allowed for a year long break, my wife Brauna could leave her work for part of the year, our seven-year old son Matthew was ready to tackle school in a foreign country, and our almost two-year old daughter Alice was barely big enough for her own adventure. The time was right.
Twenty-five years ago I was a student excavator at Tell el-Hesi, now I am the director of that expedition. For my year at the Albright my project was the preparation and analysis of materials for publication that I had helped excavate a quarter of a century earlier-a remarkable turnabout. Why after all these years wasn't Hesi already published? That is a long and convoluted story, one too long to be recited here. Suffice it to say that many good and well intentioned people had started a variety of analytical projects on these materials, but few had been completed ƒ too much data, not the correct data for one's needs, career adjustments, academic teaching loads, death, all being reasons for the various individual analytical projects not being completed. As a result, little of the Hesi material (both documentation and artifacts) was readily accessible even to one who knew the site. The material was spread out over Canada, the United States and Israel, much of it effectively lost because it wasn't where it was supposed to be. Over the past few years I have worked with a number of old Hesites to correct this situation and again allow analysis to progress.
The basis of a final archaeological report, such as the one being prepared on the Hesi material, is twofold, a stratigraphic matrix and an inventory of finds that has been interpreted. My work of 1996-1997 was to move the materials from Fields I and III at Hesi as far towards that goal as possible. Fortunately I was able to build on work begun and being continued by some other old Hesites like myself. The stratigraphic matrix was built upon work previously initiated and undertaken by the late D. Glenn Rose, Lawrence E. Toombs, Ralph W. Doermann, W. J. Bennett, Jr., and John R. Spencer and now synthesized into a massive computer database that describes each locus excavated in Fields I and III of Tell el-Hesi between 1970 and 1983, our first and last seasons. Now I can say that we have a comprehensive interpreted stratigraphic matrix in which to place the finds. It is worth noting that the resulting stratigraphic matrix shows that in some cases our field interpretations were erroneous. New interpretations have been formulated in the calm of the AP Apartment, a far different setting than the frenetic situation in the field. Also, building on work begun by Toombs, we also have a second massive database in which we have described the vast majority of the excavated ceramics both in code and in drawing form. Here too it is clear that aspects of our dating in the field were erroneous and new interpretations have been drawn. The end result of my year, therefore, was the creation of a complete and accessible stratigraphic matrix as well as a virtually complete ceramic database. We now hope to have this report completed in the next few years.
A year at the Albright, however, is more than simply the progress one makes on one's own research. It is joining a community. One of the more interesting facets of the year were the field trips, the bi-weekly trips to sites around the country and also the five-day Albright fall trip that NEH Fellow James L. Phillips led to Sinai. Having spent twenty-five years visiting here in the summers, I had been to most of the sites visited, but never in such a concentrated manner. Driving (an adventure of its own in Israel) the Albright van on most trips and leading many of the tours reacquainted me with many forgotten nuances and introduced me to new finds. Experiencing these sites when they are not dry and brown, but green and with flowers, was most enjoyable. It was also fun to see how certain sites simply "turned on" certain fellows, either to something they had never seen before or because we had reached a site that was key for their own scholarship. The new experience for me was Sinai, a place I had never been. I shall never forget climbing and seeing Serabit al-Khadem while recalling the earlier adventures of the likes of Carsten Neibuhr, Flinders Petrie, and W. F. Albright at this site and knowing the hardships they endured to get there.
For twenty-five years I have been coming to the Albright, as a visitor, student, scholar, and now Annual Professor. I have witnessed a rebirth of the institution starting during the days when the ASOR/Albright was grappling with the new situation of suddenly finding itself in Israel as it ran a small academic program but played a dominant role in the archaeological profession. A quarter of a century later ASOR has become a new organization functioning in conjunction with its three daughter organizations as it continues to coordinate and support a wide variety of Middle Eastern scholarly activities in North America, and an independent Albright that now runs its own extensive academic program and supports many American and Canadian excavation projects but within a mature local archaeological environment that it no longer dominates. Although a lot has changed in the past twenty-five years, I believe that the years ahead will continue to see additional significant changes as the missions of both the Albright and ASOR must be altered to meet the challenges and realities of the new day.
SAMUEL H. KRESS JOINT ATHENS/JERUSALEM FELLOW 1996-1997
Eric C. Lapp, Duke University
My research this year at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens and at the W. F. Albright Institute in Jerusalem investigates the material culture, epigraphic evidence, and synagogues of the Jewish Diaspora in Greece during the Roman and Early Byzantine periods. Literary sources mention Jewish communities in the Greek mainland and on the Cycladic islands that were widespread in antiquity (Philo's Embassy to Gaius 281-2; 1 Maccabees 15:23). Clay oil lamps, inscriptions, and synagogal architectural elements offer the most substantial archaeological evidence attesting to a Jewish presence at several sites in Greece. At Corinth, for example, a lintel with an incomplete Greek graffito ("Synagogue of the Hebrews") and a limestone capital with carved representations of three menorot (lampstands), lulavim (palm fronds), and an etrog (citron fruit) indicate the existence of at least one and probably two ancient synagogues.
Special attention has been paid to the examination of lamp collections for examples bearing Jewish symbols in addition to forms originating from the Near East. At Athens, for example, a moulded depiction of a highly stylized menorah (lampstand) with seven branches decorates the central discus of a locally manufactured Attic lamp recovered in the Agora. An important component of my dissertation is the trade of Syro-Palestinian lamps: the identification of such forms in Greece would not only indicate cultural connections between these Mediterranean lands, but would further illuminate the extent to which such lamps were traded abroad. In the course of my study of the material culture, I have identified several such lamps of Near Eastern origin.
Although special emphasis has been given to the study of oil lamps and inscriptions, several intriguing synagogue sites excavated during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also merit close examination. For example, on the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf, not far from the modern harbor, excavations conducted in 1829 exposed the remains of a basilican plan synagogue. Two dedicatory Greek inscriptions appearing on the building's mosaic pavement explicitly mention the names of the donors, one being Theodoros, an archon of the synagogue. By comparison, unlike the Byzantine-period synagogue mosaics at Beth Alpha and Sepphoris, which depict a rich repertoire of Jewish symbols, biblical scenes, and the zodiac cycle, the fifth century pavement at Aegina consists of simple geometric patterns.
SAMUEL H. KRESS FELLOW, ALBRIGHT INSTITUTE 1996-1997
A Social History of Highland Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries BCE
Robert D. Miller II, University of Michigan
During my appointment as a Samuel H. Kress Fellow at the Albright Institute, my primary goal has been to complete my doctoral dissertation and submit it in 1997 to the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Michigan. My topic deals with reconstructing the society of the highland Israelite settlement immediately prior to the rise of the monarchy at the end of the eleventh century BCE. The focus of my research is on the archaeological record of the twelfth and eleventh century occupation of the highlands of Palestine from Jerusalem north to the Beth Shean and Jezreel valleys. During my stay at the Albright Institute I have been able to identify and describe every Iron I site in this area. This was accomplished by examining the published and unpublished surveys and reports in the libraries of the Albright, the Hebrew University, and at Israel Antiquities Authority, Hebrew Union College, and other institutions. I examined records and sherd collections from the old excavations of Tell Dothan, Tell el-Farah North, and el-Jib/Gibeon, et al. housed in the archives of the Albright, the Ecole Biblique, Birzeit University, St. George's College, and Rockefeller Museum. This was supplemented by a survey I conducted of previously unexamined sites under a survey permit by the Palestinian Authority Department of Antiquities.
To understand the sociopolitical nature of Israelite society for the period immediately before the rise of the monarchy I have applied the model of "complex chiefdom" social systemic structure to this archaeological database. Ethnographic evidence from diverse cultures shows a high probability for complex chiefdoms immediately to have preceded state formation in the highlands of Palestine ca. 1000 BCE. This model describes pre-state societies with ascriptive rank and more than one level of political control above the base community, detailing the tributary economics and political hierarchies. The archaeological correlates to this model-settlement patterns, land usage, mortuary practices, architectural styles, and distribution of wealth-help to bring into focus the study of the realia of highland Palestine in the 12th and 11th centuries BCE. This data base, along with ancient Near Eastern sources dealing with the 12th and 11th-century highland settlement, provides a statistical basis for fine-tuning the "complex chiefdom" model.
Application of the complex chiefdom model has involved establishing a map for the entire Iron I highland settlement along with the sizes for each site. Using this map for statistical manipulation by employing the "Gravity Model" and drawing "Theissen Polygons" has formed the basis for reconstructing economic settlement systems. Further analyses for each of these systems have involved comparing site rank and site size, site population and productivity potential, the number of sites at each size, site foundation and abandonment rates, nearest-neighbor analysis, and examination of trade interaction from material remains. For the major centers of each of these systems, I have examined evidence for status and wealth differences between sections of the towns, both as seen from residential hierarchy and in different types and qualities of artifactual remains. Where Iron I tombs exist, which is infrequent, I have examined mortuary evidence for status and ranking.
My research has described several separate site systems in the hill country, each with its own main center and frequently a subordinate level of provincial centers supported economically by tiny villages. In the northern "Manassite" region, the dominant system is that of Tell Balatah (Shechem) with several ancillary centers, although other systems exist centered on Tell Dothan and Tell el-Farah North. The central "Ephraimite" area is focused on Khirbet Seilun (Shiloh), where, the walled 12-dunam city was supported by a system of subordinate village centers, such as Khirbet Jibit and Tell Marjame, and small hamlets extending far to the east and west.
One of the most confusing and yet interesting areas is the southern "Benjaminite" area. It contained a system of multiple centers, showing the changes a society of this sort undergoes over time. At the start of the 12th century, several centers already existed, all of them fairly prosperous-Beitin (Bethel) 1, et-Tell (Ai) IX, Khirbet Raddanah 2, Tell el-Ful (Gibeah) 1, and el-Jib (Gibeon) 1. By the middle of the 12th century, both Beitin I and et-Tell IX were destroyed (and immediately reoccupied) concomitant with the establishment of Khirbet Dawwara-a prosperous, walled city. In the last quarter of the 12th century, all of the sites experienced overcrowding and slum conditions and economic disparity of neighborhoods, Beitin being the worst case. Tell el-Ful was destroyed and abandoned. This situation did not change until the destruction of Khirbet Raddanah in 1050. Immediately there was a renaissance in Beitin 4 and the reconstruction of Tell el-Ful as a stronghold. Interestingly, el-Jib undergoes no changes throughout this period, nor does Khirbet Dawwara. Tell en-Nasbeh is a special case. No Iron I buildings can be reconstructed, but the site is well-represented with Iron I pottery and covered with Iron I silos. Enough silos, in fact, that even if they were only kept at 70% capacity with 30% lost to pests and/or saved as seed, there would have been sufficient space to store 180,000 kg of grain - enough to feed 900 people at a site with no occupation! My suggested reconstruction is that at Nasbeh was a regional storage facility for the chiefdom whose capital likely moved according to the rise and fall of these equally impressive centers.
It is my hope that this anthropologically-guided reconstruction of late pre-state Israel can illustrate the economic and political nature of the society. The results of my research will form one half of my Ph.D. dissertation, the other half being based on analysis of the biblical text.
USIA JUNIOR RESEARCH FELLOW'S REPORT
Diet, Urbanization, and Ethnicity: Analysis of Faunal Remains from the Philistine City of Tel Miqne-Ekron
Justin Lev-Tov, University of Tennessee
My nine month stay at the Albright began in September, a month after the close of the last season at the Tel Miqne-Ekron excavations. The duration of my fellowship not only provided me with a great research opportunity, but also gave me a chance to become reunited with my childhood home. The zooarchaeological research I conducted this year is an ongoing part of the Tel Miqne-Ekron publication project, led by Sy Gitin of the Albright and Trude Dothan of the Hebrew University.
The faunal remains I analyzed were recovered from a portion of the tel known as 'Field I,' the acropolis area of the site. Sy, Trude, and I chose this area for my analysis because excavations there revealed the best stratigraphic sequence on the site, from Late Bronze to the Iron II destruction stratum that covers the tel. The ultimate question that I am researching is whether we can use dietary patterning in faunal remains as a marker for the appearance, adaptation, and acculturation of ethnic groups. This is an important question for the Miqne project since we are concerned with tracing the Philistines' origins.
Until now pottery has been practically the only type of artifact employed to answer such questions. Some researchers have of course talked about faunal remains as an ethnic marker, as far as the presence/absence or abundance/scarcity of pig bones is concerned. I hope to go beyond that fairly basic model of foodways, and explore the animal economy as a whole to help shed light on the ethnicity question. Particularly, I have recorded in detail butchering marks; their orientation, kind, and placement on the bones. My idea is that, just as different populations have differently shaped pots, so too must they divide animal carcasses up differently to fit these pots and to conform to their cuisine.
Additionally, I have been recording animals' ages at death to see whether the economy changed orientations over time, shifting between milk, meat, or wool concentrations.
This year I have analyzed almost the entire faunal assemblage from the Iron II period, a very large amount in itself. My conclusions so far are preliminary but suggestive when compared to Drs. Brian Hesse and Paula Wapnish's (University of Alabama/Birmingham) research on the earlier periods at the site. It seems that, during the Iron I period, the animal economy was concentrated on secondary products (milk and wool) rather than meat. Further, pigs and cattle were sizable components of that assemblage. In the Iron II period, I found that there were more goats raised than sheep, and the animals were killed off at relatively young ages. Both of these facts indicate a primary interest in meat. Lastly, pigs and cattle became nearly nonexistent in the population's diet.
Whether these changes are the result of ethnic groups moving in and gradually adopting local cultural practices, or perhaps the economic effects of the Iron II period Neo-Assyrian Empire is not yet clear. Next year I will be continuing my research on the Miqne faunal material, analyzing the remaining bone corpus from the Iron I and Late Bronze periods. After some time spent crunching numbers of sheep and goats and staring at butchering marks, I hope to arrive at some conclusions that will help us understand who the Philistines were, where they came from, and how they adapted to their new environment.
UNITED STATES INFORMATION AGENCY FELLOW 1996-1997
Local Glass Use and Production: The Glass Objects and Glass Industry of Sepphoris
Beginning the 1996/97 academic year as a United States Information Agency Junior Research Fellow I thought that I would finally have the time to finish up the glass projects I was working on in Israel so that I could move on to work in Turkey. What I found was that my work has only just begun and there are many projects in Israel that I am interested in pursuing. My project began as a look at glass on the local level and developed into a regional project. In addition to preparing the glass drawings and cataloging entries for the Sepphoris glass, I used my time in Jerusalem to prepare the glass from Nabretain, a smaller site near Sepphoris. Both of these sites have glass from the Hellenistic through Roman periods, affording me the opportunity to compare the glass collections from two sites occupying different positions in the landscape (city-town). The glass from Sepphoris will be published as a volume in the Sepphoris Regional Project's publication series. The glass from Nabretain will form a chapter in the Oriental Institute Nabretain publication being compiled by Eric and Carol Meyers. A full comparison of the glass from the two sites will take at least another year to complete.
In addition to studying glass forms, I was particularly interested in two 4th to 6th c. CE glass workshops from Sepphoris. In the fall I supervised the excavation of a possible glass furnace in one of these workshops. During a trip back to the United States to defend my Master's and give a paper at the ASOR meetings in New Orleans, I returned to the University of Arizona and conducted refiring tests on ceramic fragments from this "furnace." The results I obtained were inconclusive, and await future research with which they can be compared.
One of the most interesting aspects of my research this year has been my attempt to place the Sepphoris workshops within the larger context of glass production in the Galilee region. The number of glass production sites excavated and published in the Galilee is surprisingly small. I spent a great deal of time researching the topic and found that a glass survey of the Western Galilee was undertaken by Gladys Weinberg in the 1960s. This survey culminated with the publication of the site of Jalame, but also included a number of other sites which were never published other than brief mentions in the Israel Exploration Journal. Surprisingly these unpublished surveys included the excavation of a 13th c. CE glass furnace that is now housed in the Glass Pavilion of the Tel Aviv Museum.
Another project that I undertook while at the Albright in 1996/97 focuses on glass excavated in Jerusalem. The Ecole Biblique et Archaeologique offered me the glass from three sites in and around Jerusalem. At this time I have completed the plates and catalog entries for one of these sites; La Escuela del Pilar. I plan to finish the other two sites prior to leaving Israel in late July 1997. Back in the United States, I will be able to spend more time looking at the interrelationships of the sites as suggested by the glass, as well as comparing the glass from Jerusalem with that of the Galilee. This work will be included in a volume on the three sites to be published by the Ecole.
In addition to working on glass at the Albright, I have been able to use Jerusalem as a base for ethnoarchaeological trips to other countries where I can study glassblowers. The only city in Israel/Palestine that is of interest to me ethnoarchaeologi-cally is Hebron and politically 1996/97 was a very bad year for visiting Hebron. While Israel/Palestine was a disappointment as far as these research objectives were concerned, I was able to visit glass bead makers in Turkey and glass vessel makers in Jordan and Egypt before and during my fellowship period. In all of these cases I was able to interview the glass workers, photograph their studios and tools, and in some cases complete scale drawings of their furnaces.