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Volume 47, Number 3
Autumn 1997


Annual Appeal for 1997-98 Underway

The letters are in the mail! The ASOR Development Committee has launched the Annual Appeal for 1997-98 ASOR support. This is part of its larger "ASOR 2000" development program, the goals of which are outlined in the Mission Statement below. During the past two years our appeals for support have focused primarily on our trustees, who have come through in splendid fashion. But just as ASOR has worked to broaden member participation and voice in the organization, it is only appropriate that we also reach out to all ASOR's members and friends for funds to support our efforts. You will not find Joe Seger or Rudy Dornemann's picture on the envelope, but when Chairman MacAllister's letter arrives please find a contribution category that represents your very best effort and participate as generously as you can.

As a related effort, the Development Committee also recognizes the urgent need to find means to underwrite the cost of activities planned for our Centennial celebration. You can help us to make ASOR's first Centennial fund raising event a success by participating in the special Fund Raising Dinner on November 18 during the Annual Meetings at the Napa Valley Marriott Hotel. A festive evening and an exciting program is planned. Former ASOR Chairman of the Board Gough Thompson will be our honorary host for this special event. Dr. Avraham Biran, a senior member and long time friend of ASOR, will speak on the topic "Biblical Archaeology Then and Now." The $125 a plate dinner will feature a special menu and includes a $75 donation to the fund to support our Centennial events. Your invitation to this special dinner will be included with the Annual Appeal materials. Bring a friend and share the festivities!


ASOR 2000 A Commitment for the New Millennium

ASOR is committed to the promotion and fostering of continued exploration, research and educational outreach in all disciplines serving the recovery of the history, religions and cultures of the ancient Near East by:

* Advocacy and support of affiliated overseas research centers and research committees operating in the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean area.

* Encouraging and initiating high calibre research and excavation projects.

* Maintenance and promotion of a significant scholarly and public-orientated program of professional publications.

* Generation and provision of scholarship and fellowship opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students, and for junior and senior post-doctoral scholars

* Fostering a lively discourse within American and international educations systems for those disciplines related to ancient Near Eastern history and religions, specially including the scriptural traditions of Judiasm, Christianity and Islam:

- by planning and maintaining a regular Annual Meeting Program for professional members and all friends of the society.

- by encouraging scholars and educational institutions in their efforts to develop and continue substantive programs of study and research in all related academic fields.

- by developing and sustaining programs of outreach to the general public including lectures and workshop sessions, along with tour opportunities to visit sites and resource centers in the U.S. and Europe, and throughout the Middle East.

ASOR's short term goals are:

* To increase its individual and corporate membership

* To enhance its bases of financial support

* To establish an effective public relations program in order to extend and intensify its network of communication within its several constituencies and to broaden its outreach to scholars and to the general public.

* To maintain an effective program of services to its members and of support for its affiliated overseas centers through its administrative offices, working committee networks, and publications activities.

ASOR's long term goals are:

* To develop a substantial endowment fund to help underwrite programs and activities through the twenty-first century.

* To substantially increase its outreach activities to include a broad network of American institutions of secondary education and other public entities dedicated to the study of Old World history and the roots of Western Civilization.

* To provide for increased scholarship and support opportunities to assist scholars in field research and for the publication and dissemination of research results.

ASOR's Development Committee seeks the active participation of all its members, as individuals, as representatives of its institutional affiliates, as trustees and as trustees of its affiliated overseas centers in efforts to help ensure ASOR's ability to achieve these goals and to maintain the highest possible profile of program and support activities into its second century of its life.



As our revered colleague and friend of blessed memory Yigal Shiloh used to say, "in the summer the birds all fly to the Middle East." Now in recent weeks the flocks have been returning and, to badly mix metaphors, the wires are becoming loaded with a hum of activity as ASOR committees kick into high gear. In addition to other more routine efforts, work underway at present includes the following:

- Development Committee plans for launching an Annual Appeal program including a special Fund Raising Dinner in association with the Napa meetings in November.

- An initiative to achieve status as a member based organization with the American Council of Learned Societies.

- Preparation of slates of nominees by the Nominations Committee for election to Trustee and Committee positions at the Napa meetings .

- Solicitation of the nominations of members to receive honors in Napa by the Awards Committee.

- Solicitation of annual affiliation reports and applications by the Committee on Archaeological Policy.

- Bringing to completion the Committee on Archaeological Policy's ASORDigs 96 CDROM Project.

- Planning work by the Agenda Committee for the Membership Meeting in Napa.

- Ongoing work by the Centennial Committee on facets of plans for programs in celebration of our centennial.

In addition to these activities a very large share of energy is being expended by the Committee on Annual Meeting and Program (CAMP) both in making final preparations for the November sessions in Napa, and in planning ahead for meetings in 1998 and beyond. While matters regarding the Napa meeting are well in hand, discussions regarding future meetings are ongoing and lively. Responses to the Questionnaire for Members on future meetings published in the Spring 1997 edition of the ASOR Newsletter continue to trickle in. At this stage there is no clear consensus among those responding as to preference of time, place or partnership arrangement. This underscores the complexity of the committee's task. CAMP is currently investigating meeting prospects in a number of cities including Atlanta and Indianapolis and expects to have a firm proposal to bring before the Board and Membership by the time of the Napa Meeting.

Under the motion passed at the Membership Meeting in New Orleans, CAMP was mandated to make arrangements for ASOR to meet independently and to explore prospects for joint or complementary meetings with other sister societies as might be practical. Among the options for partnerships, ASOR's Founding Societies, AIA, SBL and AOS, were most prominently mentioned. Initial liaison work with these three societies was assigned to ASOR CAMP members who also hold memberships in one of these groups. Under a resolution passed at the spring Board of Trustees meeting in Boston in April, the initiative for liaison with SBL was given special emphasis and a more formal sub-committee of CAMP has been named to explore prospects with them. At the same time I have initiated presidential level communications with the officers of each of these founding societies both in connection with the Membership and Trustee franchise reserved for each society in our By-Laws, and with respect to possible future meeting affiliations.

It is fair to say, however, that despite the deliberate and affirmative inquiries currently being pursued with respect to these partnership options, at present none of the contacts suggest that any joint activity can be planned for 1998. Although AIA has processes under way to help determine its own future meeting plans, the commitment for its meeting in 1998 has already been made, and with SBL the circumstances that led to our Membership and Board decision to meet on our own remain unchanged. As for AOS, it traditionally holds early spring meetings, and thus scheduling concerns and other practical matters preclude making any joint arrangement with them for 1998.

Accordingly, CAMP is following the prudent course which involves searching for the best option or options with respect to ambience and economic value in a location for fully independent meetings again next year. I am convinced that this will prove to be most positive for ASOR. It was clear from discussions and actions in New Orleans that a majority of our members feel it is time to affirm ASOR's self standing identity. The substantial program involvment and registration for the Napa meeting already provides good reason for optimism in regard to our ability to manage on our own, and a second year of independent meetings should help to clarify further ASOR's course for the future.

Joe D. Seger
ASOR President

News from CAARI

CAARI 15TH ANNUAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL SYMPOSIUM. On Saturday, July 26th, CAARI hosted its annual summer archaeological symposium. Traditionally, the workshop is a day-long event at which international as well as Cypriot archaeological teams present short reports outlining the results of their season's research. The workshop is designed as a forum for foreign scholars to meet with their Cypriot colleagues in order to pose questions, discuss research strategies, present new ideas, and reflect together on issues of common concern. This year's workshop attracted record attendance and twenty-four papers were presented by specialist participants. The workshop was held at the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation in Nicosia, and in the evening CAARI hosted a reception for participants and attendees in the CAARI garden. The program included:

Welcome and Introductory Remarks - Dr. Nancy Serwint, Director of CAARI, and Dr. Demos Christou, Director of the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus
Khirokitia - Dr. Alain Le Brun (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris)
Maroni-Tsaroukas - Dr. Joanna Smith for Dr. Sturt Manning (University of Reading)
Hala Sultan Tekke - Dr. Paul Astrom (University of Goteborg)
Kalavasos-Ayios Dhimitrios - Ms. Alison South (Vasilikos Valley Project)
Alassa-Paliotaverna - Dr. Sophocles Hadjisavvas (Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Kourion City - Dr. Demos Christou (Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Idalion-Ampileri - Dr. Maria Hadjicosti and Mr. Georghios Georghiou (Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Ayia Varvara-Almyras - Dr. George Constantinou for Mr. Walter Fasnacht (Schweizerisches Landesmuseum, Zurich)
Polis-Marion and Arsinoe - Dr. William Childs (Princeton University)
Athienou-Malloura - Dr. Michael Toumazou (Davidson University)
Aradippou-Panayia Ematousa - Dr. Lone Wriedt Sorensen (University of Copenhagen)
Rantidi Forest - Ms. Bonny Bazemore (University of Indianapolis)
Idalion - Dr. Pamela Gaber (University of Arizona)
Kition-Bamboula - Mr. Eustathios Raptou for Mme. Marguerite Yon (Maison de l'Orient Mediterraneen, Lyon)
Yeronisos Island Excavation 1997 - Dr. Joan Connelly (New York University)
Kato Paphos: The Garrison Camp Excavations, 1995-1996 - Dr. Filippo Giudice (University of Catania)
Amathus: Temple, Palace, City Walls - Ms. Claire Balandier for M. Pierre Aupert and M. Pierre Leriche (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
Kourion-Amathus Gate Cemetery - Ms. Danielle Parks (University of Missouri at Columbia, Department of Antiquities of Cyprus and CAARI)
Polis Pyrgos Archaeological Project - Dr. Nancy Serwint for Dr. Dariusz Maliszewski
Sotira Archaeological Project - Dr. Stuart Swiny (State University of New York at Albany)
Western Cyprus Project-Prastio Agios Savvas tis Karonos Monastery - Dr. David Rupp (Brock University)
Sydney Cyprus Survey Project - Dr. Bernard Knapp (University of Glasgow)
Conservation in the Cyprus Museum: Recently Discovered Archaeological Objects - Mr. Andreas Georghiades (Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)
Paralimni-Nissia - Dr. Pavlos Flourentzos (Department of Antiquities of Cyprus)



In recognition of his service in the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus and on the occasion of his retirement as Director of the Department of Antiquities, CAARI honored Dr. Christou with a special lecture and a garden reception on September 24th. Professor Wiktor Dashewski from the University of Trier and Director of the Kato Paphos Mosaic Project was invited to deliver the lecture in honor of Dr. Christou. Professor Dashewski, a long-time friend of Dr. Christou, spoke on "Roman Cyprus Seen from Paphos and Kourion Perspectives."

Dr. Christou had a long and brilliant tenure with the Department of Antiquities. Upon his appointment in 1971, he served as an archaeological officer until 1980; thereafter until 1989 he was appointed as a senior archaeological officer and headed the branch of restoration and preservation of monuments and sites. In 1989, Dr. Christou was named Curator of Ancient Monuments, a post he held until 1991 when he was appointed Director of the Department of Antiquities. Throughout his career, resident researchers and fellows at CAARI benefitted enormously from Dr. Christou's expertise. An inscribed silver bowl, embossed with the CAARI logo, was presented to mark the warm and cordial relationship CAARI has enjoyed with Dr. Christou.

ASOR gratefully acknowledges the following individuals
for their support in 1996-1997

Benefactors ($10,000 or more)
P. E. MacAllister
Charles U. Harris
Eugene Grant

Patrons ($5,000 or more)
V. Rebecca MacAllister

Friends ($1,000 or more)
Bruce Ludwig
Charles Goodwin
Lydie T. Shufro
Holland Lee Hendrix
George M. Landes
Eric and Carol Meyers
Lowrie Lee Sprug
Gerald L. Vincent

Sponsors ($500 or more)

Donald H. Wimmer
Joe D. Seger
R. Thomas Schaub
Jeffrey A. Blakely
W. H. Holden Gibbs
Nan Frederick
Paul F. Jacobs
Walter E. Rast
James F. Ross

Sustainors ($250 or more)

Norma Kershaw
Ernest S. Frerichs
Patty Gerstenblith
Albert Leonard, Jr.
Alfred Gottschalk
Martin Meyerson

Other Contributors

H. L. Carvalho
Frank Moore Cross
Paul Y. Hoskisson
Anne C. Ogilvy
Deborah Stern
Edward F. Campbell
Jerrold S. Cooper
Edward G. Gilbert
C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky
Marjorie B. Kiewit
Edmund E. Martin
Paul Merkel
J. Maxwell Miller
Andrew Oliver, Jr.
Jerry Pattengale
Ronald P. Pawl
B. Winfred Ruffner
Richard J. Scheuer
Hershel Shanks
J. Bjornar Storfjell
Malcolm Wiener
Richard Whitaker
William G. Dever
Walter Aufrecht
Bert and Sally DeVries
Douglas A. Knight
William E. McClure
Elizabeth B. Moynihan
Paul A. Rizack
Tammi Schneider
Hugh P. Lehman
Seymour Gitin
Pauline Albenda
Pierre Bikai
Vivian A. Bull
James H. Charlesworth
Sanford M. Fitzsimmons
Lawrence T. Geraty
Charles H. Miller
Andrew G. Vaughn
Nancy L. Lapp
Peter Feinman
Jodi Magness
Irving Saginor

ASOR would also like to acknowledge grants from the following foundations in support of its various programs:

Catholic Biblical Association
Concordia Archaeological Society
Dorot Foundation
Endowment for Biblical Research
Lindstrom Foundation
Replogle Foundation
Samuel H. Kress Foundation

From the Publications Desk

This has been an exciting year for ASOR's publication program. New initiatives in the form of a new identity for ASOR's premier journal Biblical Archaeologist (now Near Eastern Archaeology) and plans for the establishment of a fund to support and encourage the publication of final excavation reports have infused new energy and direction.

The move of the Publications Office into the new Luce Center at Emory University is still planned for Spring 1998 and will mark a turning for Publications. Two offices are dedicated for ASOR in the new building. The space will allow us to begin to expand our personnel. Plans are underway to establish a permanent full time Composition/Typesetting position. This individual will be expected to take over the composition of NEA and the three book series as well as to help with preparation of advertizing as part of our new marketing initiative.

ASOR's three journals continue to flourish, maintaining a steady circulation base. The simplified membership categories that took effect last month now allow ASOR professional level members to select JCS in addition to NEA or BASOR. This change not only gives ASOR members a wider choice, but will help increase the circulation of JCS, the only American journal dedicated to cuneiform studies. Volumes 48 and 49 of the journal are scheduled to appear early in 1998.

BASOR continues to maintain its status as one of the premier American scholarly journals in archaeology. Editor James Weinstein reports that the remaining volumes for 1997 will appear in the next few months and as of 1998, the journal will be fully on schedule.

After six years of unflagging dedication to the production of Biblical Archaeologist, David Hopkins' tenure as editor will come to an end in December of 1998. The Committee on Publications is actively soliciting suggestions for a new editor to fill Hopkins' shoes. Anyone who would like to be considered should contact COP Chair, Albert Leonard, Jr. Perhaps Hopkin's most lasting legacy to the journal will be its new identity. Look for a preview of the new Near Eastern Archaeology magazine at the ASOR table in Napa in November.

Also on display in Napa will be the latest volume in the ASOR Archaeological Reports series, Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity. This volume represents the first of the CAARI Monographs to be published in this series. Discounts of up to 40% will be available to ASOR members at the meeting.

Also slated for publication in the next few months is the ASOR Annual vol. 54, Ancient Naukratis, by Al Leonard, Jr. A number of other manuscripts have been accepted for publication or are under review.

Sales of book and back issues were vigorous last year and have left us with a healthy positive surplus of funds for the seventh year in a row. The proposed budget for 1997-98 has us operating at a loss for the first time. This is due in part to the anticipated cost of setting up the Luce Center offices, but also because we have made the decision to dedicate additional funds for marketing and publicity.

Nevertheless, ASOR Publications is now in a position to draw on its substantial resources to fulfill some long-dreamed of goals. In particular, with the infusion of income from sales of the Oxford Encyclopedia of Near Eastern Archaeology, the Committee will convene in November to discuss ways in which to establish a fund to help promote the publication of final excavation reports.

In this connection, it is with deep appreciation for his commitment to ASOR and its publication program that the Committee on Publications extends its thanks to Eric Meyers, who chose to commit a percentage of the royalties for sales of the Encyclopedia to ASOR Publications.

Respectfully submitted
Billie Jean Collins, Director of Publications

ASOR Awards Committee Solicits Nominations for 1996

As the old reel goes "Honor your partners!" For many years ASOR has enjoyed a practice of honoring those members who in various ways made outstanding contributions to the organization. The Board of Trustees has recently approved the formation of a Committee on Honors and Awards to maintain and enhance this tradition. This committee's mandate is to establish award categories and to solicit nominations from the entire ASOR membership. The present awards are:

The Richard J. Scheuer Medal - This is the most prestigious award which honors an individual who has provided truly outstanding , long term support and service contributions to ASOR. (given only as appropriate)

The Charles U. Harris Service Award - This award is given in recognition of long term and/or special service as an ASOR officer or Trustee. (one annual award)

The P.E. MacAllister Field Archaeology Award - This award honors an archaeologist who, during his/her career, has made outstanding contributions to ancient Near Eastern and eastern Mediterranean archaeology. (one annual award)

The G. Ernest Wright Award - This award is given to the editor/author of the most substantial volume(s) dealing with archaeological excavations and/or material culture from the ancient Near East and eastern Mediterranean published within the past two years. (one annual award)

The Frank Moore Cross Award - This award is presented to the editor/author of the most substantial volume(s) related to ancient Near Eastern and eastern Mediterranean epigraphy, text and/ or tradition published during the past two years. (one annual award)

The W. F. Albright Award - This award honors an individual who has shown special support or made outstanding service contributions to one of the overseas centers ACOR, AIAR, CAARI, or to one of the overseas committees-the Baghdad committee and the Damascus committee. (given as appropriate)

ASOR Membership Service Award - This award recognizes individuals who have made special contributions on behalf of the ASOR membership through committee, editorial, or office services. (three annual awards)

The ASOR Committee on Honors and Awards invites all ASOR members to submit nominations for candidates who they believe would be deserving of one of these awards. Nominations should made in writing. In addition to a letter in support of the candidate and specifying the award category, please include complete contact information such as postal address, phone, fax, and e-mail for both the sponsor and nominee. Send all completed nominations on or before October 1st, 1997 to the Committee Chair, Lydie Shufro, 885 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021-0325; Fax: 212-737-4984; e-mail


Elections will take place at the
ASOR Membership and Corporation Meeting
in the Ballroom of the Napa Valley Marriott
on Thursday 20 November beginning at 8am

Nominations will continue to be accepted up to the Membership and Corporation Meeting

Nominees to represent the Institutional Members of ASOR are as follows:

Thomas R. Schaub
John R. Lee
Charles H. Miller

Nominees to represent the Individual Members of ASOR are as follows:

Jeffrey Zorn
Nan Frederick
Andrea Berlin

Brief bios on these nominees will be posted on ASOR's web site in late October

Announcing the LINDSTROM FELLOWSHIP RECIPIENTS for the 1997 Annual Meeting, Napa, California

Julye Bidmead, Vanderbilt University

Jennie R. Ebeling, University of Arizona

Chris Holland, Mississippi State University

Alice Hudiburg, Vanderbilt University

Judith Kenworthy, Texas A&M University

Jonathan Lawrence, University of Notre Dame

Seth Sanders, Johns Hopkins University

Elizabeth Ann Willett, University of Arizona

W.F. Albright Institute of
Archaeological Research, Jerusalem:
Project Descriptions of Albright Appointees

W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research
P.O. Box 19096
91190 Jerusalem, Israel

The following is a report on the activities of the 1996-1997 Appointees of the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem. These are brief summaries of the Appointees' activities. There were 47 Appointees (one with a double appointment) - 15 named Professorships or Fellowships; 31 Associate Senior, Post-Doctoral, and Research Fellowships; and one Honorary Fellowship (Social Science Research Council).

1. The Tel Miqne-Ekron Silver Caches: The Assyrian and Egyptian Connections

Seymour Gitin, Dorot Director and Professor of Archaeology, Albright Institute

Six caches containing 259 silver ingots, hacksilber, and pieces of silver jewelry have been excavated at Tel Miqne-Ekron. The caches or hoards are singularly important because they were found in sealed deposits in monumental buildings that were part of a well-defined town plan of one of the largest Iron Age cities excavated in Israel. This city can be dated to the seventh century, based on associated material culture finds, the newly discovered Ekron royal dedicatory inscription, and extra-biblical texts. The caches are securely dated to the last phase of the seventh century which was destroyed in the 603 BCE campaign of the Neo-Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar.

Ekron was one of five Philistine capital cities. In the seventh century, it became a vassal city-state of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the economic policies of which stimulated the development at Ekron of one of the largest olive oil production centers in antiquity uncovered to date. As such, it was a major commercial component of Assyria's international exchange system in the eastern Mediterranean basin that far surpassed in scope and scale the earlier exchange system of Bronze Age palace economies. Silver, used as currency, played an important role in the development of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its economic interests. Silver continued to function as currency in the post-Assyrian period at Ekron, that is, in its final phase when Ekron and Philistia became part of the Egyptian sphere of influence.

2. Analysis and Publication of Tell el-Hesi: Fields I and III

Jeffrey A. Blakely, Annual Professor; CRM Archaeologist, Archeological Assessments, Inc., and Lecturer, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Tell el-Hesi is a relatively modest tell site located between Qiryat Gat and Gaza. The site covers 25 acres and its occupation spans the Early Bronze Age through the Persian Period with a Bedouin cemetery capping the site. Its modest size, however, belies its importance to the history of Middle Eastern archaeology. Here in 1890 W. M. Flinders Petrie identified the basics of Palestinian ceramic chronology as he scaled the site's eastern scarp, and then during the following two years Frederick Jones Bliss conducted the first stratified excavations at a Palestinian site. In this work he combined Petrie's chronology with stratigraphy to define the discipline as we know it today.

From 1970 through 1983 the Joint Archaeological Expedition to Tell el-Hesi conducted eight seasons of excavation at the site. There were three original goals of this work: to apply the most modern archaeological techniques in the re-excavation of a site excavated by pioneers; the integration of scientific disciplines into the excavation and analytical processes at a level previously unknown; and to train young scholars in archaeological method. These goals the project met. However, in the twenty-seven years since the project began, only parts of the site's stratigraphic matrix have been published in detail, the early Persian Period and the Bedouin Cemetery. For Fields I and III, significant Iron Age and late Persian Period strata and material culture remains are left to be analyzed and published. The preparation of the scanty EB and LB remains of Fields I and III, along with the major Iron Age and late Persian Period remains involves completing the stratification of all excavated loci, preparing the plans, text, and photographs describing the stratigraphy, organizing and identifying the ceramics, objects, and other cultural remains to be published, and preparing a synthesis of what was found by the Joint Archaeological Expedition to Tell el-Hesi in these two fields. Much of these data, plans, and illustrations will be incorporated within a master data base that can be published on disk. Such a publication scheme will allow for a far shorter printed text then would otherwise be possible, yet it would sacrifice neither detail nor accessibility.

3. Regional Geography and Social History in Northern Palestine in Late Antiquity

Hayim Lapin, National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow; Department of History, University of Maryland at College Park

Palestine in late antiquity offers historians the opportunity to study important political and cultural changes: the Christianization of the Roman empire, the emergence of rabbinic Judaism, and, ultimately, the impact of the Muslim conquests. Nevertheless, a conventional history of later Roman Palestine (second to seventh centuries CE) cannot be written. Literary texts are too episodic and reflective of too widely divergent biases (primarily Jewish and Christian), and the material evidence from archaeology generally too specific to the particular site, to allow the reconstruction of a historical narrative of the various groups and actors and their interaction in later Roman Palestine. Given the constraints of the sources, alternative strategies both of research and of presentation are necessary.

Ultimately, the goal the project is to ask to what extent the massive religious, ethnic, and social changes in late antique Palestine were shaped or constrained by the geographical or structural organization of economic production and trade, by correlating the archaeological evidence for economic organization with the distribution of other institutions such as courts, schools, or places of worship, and with the distribution of different ethnic or religious communities in Palestine. The project builds upon extensive and comparatively well-published excavation and surveys that offer some insight into the hierarchical organization of cities and villages and hence, to some extent, into the hierarchical organization of agricultural production and trade. Furthermore, in an age without mass media, trade was a primary vehicle for the exchange of information and frequently the occasion for other kinds of social interaction as well. As such, this material offers a grid against which to plot the kinds of interactions in which the literary texts are most interested. The advantage of this approach is that it is uniquely suited to the state of the evidence about Roman Palestine. The narratives of the literary remains (especially rabbinic texts) frequently locate specific small-scale events (visits to a sage or holy man, events in the marketplace, court cases) in particular locations. Hence, this kind of analysis makes it possible to correlate different bodies of information that reflect different levels of social, economic, and political interaction for which the sources generally yield piecemeal information. Hopefully, the project will shed light as well on broader questions of economic, social, religious and ethnic history in the ancient world.

4. The Prehistory of Northern Sinai

James Phillips, National Endowment for the Humanities Fellow; Professor of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago

During the 1970s, a series of archaeological surveys and excavations in northern Sinai were conducted by a joint University of Illinois and Hebrew University team led by James Phillips and Ofer Bar-Yosef. More than fifty archaeological sites were discovered and excavated. This project presents the final results of work after the return of the archaeological material to the Egyptian Government in December 1994.

The Epipaleolithic occupation of the Levant (from 20,000-10,300 BP) contains the seeds for the earliest development of sedentary villages, and, eventually, agriculture and animal husbandry anywhere on earth. The sites discovered in northern Sinai belong to this complex and contain important information, which analyzed, has helped to understand further the processes that led to village life. Further, a majority of the sites belong to one specific archaeological culture, the Mushabian, which occurs only in the Negev, Sinai, and southern Jordan. This culture may not be of Levantine origin, and, in fact, is related to movement of populations throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Thus the project has resulted in a new understanding of the settlement and subsistence of northern Sinai during this period.

The interval from 20,000-10,300 BP was the time period when frequent and rapid climatic changes spread over the earth, effecting the environment in various ways. While in Europe it was quite cold and relatively dry (sea level was down 50-200m), in the Levant it was generally cooler and more humid than today. This climatic type, which promoted a temperate seasonal environment, facilitated the movement of populations out of the Mediterranean northern Levant into the newly formed grasslands and Oak-Pistachio forests of the central and southern Levant. Notable within this expansion was the increased distribution of wild grasses, such as wheat and barley, into the Negev and, probably, northern Sinai. It is within this context that the terminal Pleistocene occupation of northern Sinai took place.

5. Smelting and Sacrifice: A Comparative Analysis of Cult Sites with Metallurgical Installations in Greece and the Near East

Sandra Westover, George A. Barton Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, University of Southern California

This project relies on both archaeological evidence and literary sources to conduct a comparative analysis of the semiotics of metallurgy in Greece and the Near East from the Bronze and Iron Ages through the Classical period. Cult and metallurgy were concomitant in a number of sanctuaries in both Greece and the East: Greek sites include Olympia, Tegea, and Asea; key Near Eastern sites are Timna, Serabit el Khadim, Ras Ibn Hani, and the Cypriot sites of Athienou, Kition, and Enkomi. The importance of metals and metallurgists in international trade from the Bronze Ace onward, and the myths of the Greek metallurgical daimones (e.g., the Daktyloi, Telchines and Kabeiroi), suggest that the location of metallurgical installations at Greek cult sites may recall a Near Eastern antecedent. A comparative investigation of these sites is necessary to evaluate the potential for semiotic weight as well as pragmatic interest behind these juxtapositions. Given the paucity of written sources from the earliest of these Ages, the study must rely heavily upon the literary evidence of the Hellenistic period, which is particularly rich in references concerning metallurgy. These records for both Greek and Semitic cultures suggest that the processing of ores and working of metals was a significant metaphor as well as a source of economic strength. As a metaphor, the act of forging was not merely the production of artifacts, but a vehicle for the communication of such critical issues as the maintenance of the elite and the distinction between the barbarian and the self. This communicative function of the working of metals would be especially acute when positioned in or near a sanctuary. This study has the potential to further illuminate not only the dynamics of individual cult sites, but also the transference of ideas as well as objects in East-West trade.

6. Archaeological Correlates Toward a Social History of Highland Israel in the 12th and 11th Centuries B.C.E.

Robert D. Miller II, Kress Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, The University of Michigan

The purpose of this study is to facilitate an understanding of the sociopolitical nature of Israelite society for the period immediately before the rise of the monarchy at the end of the eleventh century BCE This will be accomplished by applying the model of "complex chiefdom" social systemic structure to the realia of twelvth and eleventh century highland Palestine in order to provide an anthropologically-guided historical reconstruction of "Epimonarchic" Israel.

Ethnographic evidence from diverse cultures shows a high probability for complex chiefdoms immediately to precede state formation, thus suggesting the model for the communities that preceded state formation in the highlands of Palestine ca. 1000 BCE. While chiefdom models have only rarely been applied or assumed in the past for this community, and often in a vague and ill-defined manner, this model describes pre-state societies with ascriptive rank and more than one level of political control above the base community, detailing the tributary economies and political hierarchies. The archaeological correlates to this model-settlement patterns, land usage, mortuary practices, architectural styles, and distribution of wealth -help to focus the study of the archaeological record of Israelite community in the twelvth and eleventh centuries BCE. Field notes and site reports, published and unpublished, from archaeological excavations and surveys relating to this archaeological record will be examined for information relating to the above mentioned archaeological correlates. This data base of archaeological data from highland Palestine, with ancient Near Eastern sources dealing with the twelvth and eleventh century highland settlement, will provide a statistical basis for fine tuning the "complex chiefdom" model to describe the social history of the eleventh and twelvth century Israelite community.

7. The Jewish Diaspora in Roman Greece: The Archaeological and Epigraphic Evidence

Eric C. Lapp, Samuel H. Kress Joint Athens/Jerusalem Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, Duke University

Clay oil lamps, inscriptions, and synagogal architectural elements offer the most substantial archaeological evidence attesting to a Jewish presence at several sites in late antique Greece. The purpose of Lapp's research this year at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem is to provide an up-to-date treatment of these finds with particular attention paid to the re-examination of lamp collections for samples bearing Jewish iconography, particularly the seven-branched lampstand (or menorah). At Athens, for example, a moulded depiction of a highly stylized menorah decorates the central discus of a locally manufactured Attic lamp recovered in the Agora. An important component of Lapp's dissertation is the trade of Syria-Palestinian lamps: the identification of such forms in Greece would not only indicate contact between these Mediterranean lands, but would illuminate further the extent to which such lamps were marketed abroad.

Philo cites numerous Jewish communities in the Greek mainland as well as on several of the Cycladic islands (Embassy to Gaius 281-2). Several intriguing synagogue sites excavated during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries substantiate his claims and are the focus of my study. At Delos, for example, the remnants of the earliest extant synagogue dating to the first century BCE was discovered bv AndrÚ Plassart of the °cole francaise d'Ath¶nes. His excavations of the public sanctuary conducted in 1912-13 exposed four inscriptions containing the term theos hypsistos ("highest god"). Plassart further identified a marble throne or "seat of Moses" (Matthew 23:2) found along the building's western wall. At Corinth, two architectural features attest to the existence of at least one and probably two ancient synagogues: a lintel with an incomplete Greek graffito ("Synagoque of the Hebrews") and a limestone capital with carved representations of seven-branched lampstands, palm fronds (lulavim), and a citron fruit (etrog). With the completion of Lapp's on-site visitation of late antique synagogues, museum collections, and archival research, he intends to publish his findings in Hesperia: Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

8. The Archaeological Sites and Architectural Monuments of Jerusalem

Robert Schick, Islamic Studies Fellow; Professor of Islamic Archaeology, al-Quds University

For the 1996-1997 year, Schick's principal research project involves the study of the archaeological sites and architectural monuments in Jerusalem. The results of his work will be incorporated into an expanded English edition of Bleberstein and Bloedhom's three volume German study.

Klaus Bieberstein and Hans-Wulf Bloedhorn, Jerusalem: GrundzÄge der Baugeschichte vom Chalkolithikum bis zur FrÄhzeit der osmanischen Herrschaft. Beihefte zum Täbinger Atlas des vorderen Orients. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 1994. 3 volumes, 1249 pages.

The first volume contains a summary of the history, archaeological sites and architectural monuments of Jerusalem, presented by period. Volumes two and three include a corpus of sites with a short description of each archaeological site or monument followed by extensive bibliographic citations.

Schick's responsibilities are to write the English text and expand the book's coverage of the Islamic periods by enhancing the site descriptions in the corpus and adding citations to Arabic publications, which are almost totally lacking in the German edition. Specifically, he is adding information from such sources as the Islamic law court records, which document what happened to Islamic monuments in Jerusalem after they were constructed. He is also adding citations to the several hundred Arabic books and articles about Jerusalem, ranging from the medieval geographers and travellers to modern authors. Schick hopes to have the expanded English edition finished by late 1998.

9. Local Glass Use and Production: The Glass Objects and Glass Industry of Sepphoris

Alysia Fischer, United States Information Agency Junior Research Fellow; M.A. Candidate, University of Arizona

The main focus of this project is the glass excavated at Sepphoris by both the Sepphoris Regional Project and the University of South Florida's Excavations at Sepphoris. The importance of the glass corpus from Sepphoris is that it offers a rare opportunity to learn more about the history of glass technology. In addition to containing glass from the Hellenistic through Arab periods, the Sepphoris corpus includes glass vessels and production waste from two fourth/fifth century glass workshops. Very little evidence for glass vessel production has been excavated in Israel and only one site, tJalame, has been published fully at this time. This project will include preparing the Sepphoris Regional Project vessels for publication as well as a fall excavation season to complete the exposure of a fifth century glass furnace in the University of South Florida area. The two glass workshops offer an opportunity to compare two industries and determine how they may have competed. In addition to the Sepphoris glass, the vessels from the Upper Galilee site of Nabratein will also be prepared for publication. By comparing the Sepphoris and Nabratein glass it is hoped that a model for production centers vs. trade centers can be created for use in interpreting glass finds in the future.

10. Iron Age II Textile Production: The Development of Commercial Textile Production in the Levant

Glenda Friend, United States Information Agency Junior Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, Baltimore Hebrew University.

This dissertation research focuses on archaeologically recovered artifacts relating to textile production. By examining loom weights and other textile production tools recovered during excavations, it is possible to trace increased textile production and therefore explore the issues of technological advance and domestic vs. commercial production in the Iron Age II period. Archaeological evidence reveals that during the Iron Age II period loom weight technology changed; this is demonstrated by the increased numbers of weights, types, and method of manufacture. Material from sites in Israel and Jordan (Ashkelon, Dhar Mizbaua, el Jibb, Gaza, Gezer, Jenin, Tel Amal, Tell Halif, Tell Beit Mirsim, Tell es-Sa'idiyeh, Tell el-Ful, Tell Jalul, Tell Ta'annek, Wadi Dalyia) will be examined to determine the range of textile production in each region represented by a site or cluster of sites. The extent of political, cultural and economic influences on the development of the textile industries in each region will also be explored. In the first stage of this research a catalogue of the corpus of loom weights from Tell Taannek has been compiled, which will be published by Bir Zeit University.

11. Philistine Foodways and Pastoral Production at Tel Miqne-Ekron--A Zooarchaeo-logical Study

Justin S. E. Lev-Tov, United States Information Agency Junior Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, University of Tennessee

This Ph.D.dissertation project will comprise the analysis of faunal samples from Tel Miqne-Ekron. The study concentrates on changes in the animal economy of the city over time, from the Late Bronze Age (fourteenth to thirteenth centuries BCE) through Iron Age II (seventh century BCE). During this millennium the city's status underwent significant changes from its Late Bronze Age existence as a small Canaanite urban enclave, to a major Philistine border city in Iron I, to, in its final phase in Iron II, a Neo-Assyrian vassal state. These dramatic shifts over time no doubt affected the city's pastoral production strategies and dietary preferences. The main questions to be addressed will be economic (pastoral production strategies) and social (how diet may reflect political and cultural change at Ekron over time). Urban growth, border conflicts, and tribute demands no doubt affected the city's economy. At various times then, consumers and herders may have adapted to changing conditions by emphasizing either foodstuffs like milk and meat or animal 'byproducts' like wool and labor, depending on external and internal political demands. Likewise group identity may be reflected in the faunal remains -perhaps most prominently during the era of Philistines' settlement in the area and during their later conflicts with the neighboring Israelites. Examining what species were consumed in which proportions, as well as butchery practices, may give insight into this question.

12. The Pottery from Areas KK and CV at Caesarea and the Pottery from the 1995 Tufts University Excavations at Masada

Jodi Magness, United States Information Agency Summer Scholar in Residence; Assistant Professor of Classical and Near Eastern Archaeology, Tufts University

Magness's project consists of two separate and unrelated components: the pottery from Areas KK and CV of the Combined Caesarea Expeditions to Caesarea Maritima, and the pottery from the 1995 Tufts University Excavations at Masada. She spent the first part of the summer working on the Caesarea pottery, which was excavated in previous seasons to the south of the Crusader city. She recorded every piece of pottery that had been saved, and selected examples for publication. As this pottery comes from a series of stratified levels dating from the fourth or fifth to seventh centuries CE, it will provide the basis for developing a sequence of types (typology). It will also provide an indication of when the carceres of the Herodian hippodrome to the south of the Crusader city went out of use, since these layers overlay that structure.

The Masada pottery comes from the excavations in Roman siege Campe F, which was the headquarters of the commander, Flavius Silva. The pottery underwent restoration in the summer of 1996; Magness then selected pieces for study and publication. The majority of the pottery consists of storejars, which originally contained food supplies for the Roman army. All of these jars seem to be Palestinian in origin, but not Judean. It is Magness' plan to try to ascertain the source of the food supplies of the Roman army in the siege at Masada by determining the source of these jars (at this point, indicators seem to point to the port at Jaffa). Since the pottery from Masada can be dated precisely to the time of the siege (73/74 CE). it will provide a valuable fixed point for the ceramic types represented there.

13. Biblical Exegesis in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Genre Pesher

Ida Frohlich, Andrew W. Mellon Fellow; Professor of Ancient Hebrew Studies, Pazmany Peter Catholic University, Hungary

Since 1992, Frohlich has been working on a long-range project, the aim of which is to determine genres in Qumran exegetical literature, their characteristics, background, and changes during their history. The Qumran scrolls come from the library of a spiritual community; they are products of a long period between the third century BCE and first century CE. Exegetical works from Qumran represent the traditions and views of a spiritually isolated community with special traditions and aims. Biblical interpretation was one of the special ways of expression of their identity.

The best-known and most studied form of Qumran exegesis is the "pesher," a special, verse by verse interpretation of biblical texts. The interpretations are introduced by a special formula ("pishro," and its variants). A group of such interpretative works, written mainly to prophetic books, are called pesharim, written about the middle of the first century BCE. Events mentioned in the prophetic texts refer in the pesharim to the history of the community. Earlier research focused on this group of exegetical texts. However, examples of the 'pesher' are to be found also in other works of Qumran, written prior to the pesharim. It seems that the use of the method pesher in various Qumran works reflects a longer intellectual tradition. Both the "isolated peshers" and the prophetic pesharim use a common vocabulary that originates from a source apart from the interpreted text, and seems to be the language of a distant tradition. One focal point of the analysis is to disclose the vocabulary and possible origin of that tradition, and to show changes in the form of the "pesher."

Another form of Qumran exegesis is represented by certain narrative texts. They are discontinuous narratives written with special exegetical purpose. They retell (or refer to) select stories of the antediluvian and patriarchal tradition. The pericopae are selected in order to set examples on the sinner and the righteous. The author and his audience identify themselves with the righteous.

Another focus of the research is to define charateristics of that narrative exegetical texts, the exact meaning and the purpose of the choice of the pericopae.

Finally, the aim of the research is to point to similarities and differences between the two groups representing two methods but having some basic principles, and establish their relationship.

14. Ishchali - A Social Analysis of the Temple Complex and Its Place in the Cultural Context of the Ancient Near East in the Second Millennium BCE

Pavol Rako, Andrew W. Mellon Fellow; Researcher, Institute of the Ancient Near East, Charles University, Czech Republic

Temples were not only a very prominent urban feature of cities in ancient Mesopotamia, but also significantly influenced the everyday life of their inhabitants. Despite their exceptional position in society, our knowledge, however, about the role of temples at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. is still not sufficient. Rako's research which focuses an a precise analysis of the social and economic life of temples in Ishchali based on the results of archaeological research and archival records, should be helpful in clarifing this subject. Ishchali which was uncovered by the Chicago expedition in two seasons (1934-1936), is comprised of a few building complexes. The dominant buildings of these were the Kititum temple complex, the "Shamash" temple, and the "Serai". All occupation levels belong to the Old Babylonian period, during which the site was a part of the Kingdom of Eshnunna. The most important and the largest building-complex excavated at Ishchali is the Kititum complex; it is one of the largest Old Babylonian temples yet excavated. It contained two separate sanctuaries. While the larger of these occupied the western part of the complex, and is dedicated to Ishtar-Kititum, the smaller subsidiary one was located along the north side of the complex and is perhaps dedicated to Ninshubura. The smaller and separate "Shamash" temple was situated near the city gate and was dedicated to god Shamash. The temples in Ishchali have features typically found in a Babylonian temple; the plan is essentially a simple rectangle formed by a court surrounded on three sides by single rows of rooms, with the cella and its adjuncts at one end. It presents an opening to the outside directly on an axis with the inner doors to the antecella and the cella itself. The cella is a "broadroom" with the entrance and cult-niche on the long sides of the room.

During the Chicago excavations 280 cuneiform tablets at Ishchali were recovered. This text group is complemented by another composed of 169 texts. They were identified by S. Greengus in the Chicago "Frankfort collection", which were purchased in 1930 by Henri Frankfort for the Oriental Institute and came from illegal digging in Ishchali. The third group of Ishchali tablets come from the "University of California collection". They were identified by Lutz and also originated from illegal digging.

The Ishchali tablets include a range of text types, including the usual receipts for tools, building materials, records of loans, lists of gifts made to the gods, and other administrative memoranda. There are also numerous letters, a number of legal records, and school texts. These texts can be arranged in five categories: letters, legal documents, administrative documents, literary and school texts, miscellaneous and unclassified texts. The study of the text group from Ishchali can bring a new knowledge in the discussion about changes in the economic life in beginning of the second millennium B.C. in Mesopotamia, and can contribute to the understanding of the socio-economic development and role of the temple in the Old Babylonian period.

15. Agriculture, Irrigation, and Salinization in Ancient Mesopotamia from Phytolith Analyses of Archaeological Sediments

Arlene M. Rosen, Senior Fellow (Weizmann Institute of Science Fellow); Researcher, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba

This study concerns the development of a new technique for the identification of salinization in ancient fields. Recent research has shown that phytoliths from ancient cereals occurring in the sediments of archaeological sites can attest to the farming microenvironment of plant growth. These microfossils are indicators of irrigation or dry-farming. Phytoliths bearing the "irrigation signal" have been used as indicators of irrigation (floodwater) farming in Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age sites in southern Israel. This "irrigation signal" is diminished as fields become more saline over time. Therefore, in regions where irrigation is a known method of farming, one should be able to utilize phytoliths to track the increasing salinization of the fields associated with an ancient town or village.

In order to test these suppositions, Rosen has analyzed sediment samples from a range of sites in Mesopotamia and the Jordan Valley with the aim of comparing phytoliths from early, presalinization fields with those from later salinized fields. These data will also be compared with phytolith extractions from modern cereals cultivated in saline fields. This technique can then be used in irrigation societies such as Mesopotamia to track the intensification of field use on a site by site basis.

16. Khirbet Belameh: Exploration of the Water System

Hamdan Taha, Senior Research Fellow (Director, Palestinian Department of Antiquities)

Taha's project involves the publication of the 1996-1997 salvage excavations of the Kh. Belameh water tunnel, directed by Hamdan Taha. Kh. Belameh is located at the southern entrance of Jenin, ca. 1.5 km. south of Tell Jenin. The site guards the southernmost pass to the Marj Ibn Amer (Jezreel plain). Kh. Belameh is identified with Ibleam, one of the ancient cities of Canaan, mentioned as a royal city in the Egyptian Archives and named in the list of the Palestinian cities conquered by Tuthmos III in the fifteenth century BCE. In the Biblical tradition, it is mentioned as the city of Issacher, which was given to Menasseh, and from which the Menassites were unable to drive out the Canaanite. In the Roman period, the site was known as Belmont. At the foot of the ancient mound lies the spring of Bir es-Sinjib - Bir es-Sinjil - from where water was brought to the city by means of a tunnel cut into the rock, which provides a safe passageway. The tunnel was apparently cut during the Late Bronze Age-Early Iron Age and was reused during the Roman-Byzantine period. The entrance of the tunnel has a large Roman vault, probably rebuilt during the Crusader period. In 1908, G. Schumacher described the water tunnel, and a small-scale excavation was conducted by Z. Yeivin in 1973.

The current excavation has uncovered ca. 150 m. of the tunnel which is 3.20 m wide  3 to 7 m high. Steps were hewn out of the rock and small lamp niches were cut into the walls of the tunnel. At its entrance, a large cistern was found that may be identified with Bir es-Sinjib/Sinjil, a corruption of the Crusader name St. Job or St. Jeal. The second part of the tunnel shows evidence of reuse from the Medieval period, while the end part of the tunnel, which was filled to the top with debris, yielded mainly Early Roman pottery. A large number of lamps were found, mostly in the second part of the tunnel. The water passage of Belameh is another important addition to our knowledge of the ancient water systems in Palestine, found at El-Gib (Gibeon), Tell el-Mutassallem (Megiddo), Tell Waqas (Hazor), Gezer, and Jerusalem.

17. Tell el-Ful and its Countryside

Shimon Gibson, Post-Doctoral Fellow; Israel Antiquities Authority/Palestine Exploration Fund

The summit of Tell el-Ful (identified as Gibeah of Saul) was extensively excavated by Albright in the 1920s and later in 1933, and by Paul Lapp in the 1960s before the construction there of a palace (left incomplete) for King Hussein of Jordan. In 1981, a comprehensive archaeological survey was carried out in the countryside surrounding the tel, with the identification of dense scatters of ancient remains, including settlements, dating from prehistoric through Ottoman times. Since the survey was undertaken, numerous salvage excavations have been conducted in this area. Within the last year, a six month excavation project, directed by S. Gibson and Z. Greenhut, has been undertaken on the eastern slopes of Tell el-Ful on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority. It became clear that beneath the terraces on the slopes of the tel are extensive settlement remains. Part of a settlement dating from the Middle Bronze II b was uncovered, in addition to well-preserved remains and installations from the Early Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic periods. The aim of the present study is to combine within one research program all the materials gathered from the survey and excavations in the area, so that a comprehensive picture of Tell el-Ful and its countryside may eventually be published.

18. The Study of Biblical Hebrew Syntax from a Functional Perspective

Michael Rosenbaum, Post-Doctoral Fellow; Brandeis University

The study of Biblical Hebrew at the end of the twentieth century is still largely dependent upon grammars that were written or have their roots in the nineteenth century. The purpose of this project is to further our understanding of Biblical Hebrew syntax through the application of more recent linguistic approaches. Specifically, this project utilizes a functional approach to language, in particular Functional Grammar, as well as insights and terminology from Russian Formalism, Prague School linguistics and Discourse Analysis. In Linguistics there are two diverging paradigms concerning the nature of language: the functional and the formal. This project is conceived from a functional point of view. Beginning with the fundamental principle of the functional model that language is the general-purpose human communication device, it is assumed that there is little point in considering language in abstraction from this function; language must be viewed within the context of interpersonal interactions between human beings within cultures. The most tangible result of this project this year has been the publication in the series Studia Semitica Neerlandica of a book entitled Word-Order Variation in Isaiah 40-55 (Van Gorcum, 1997). In this work the functional model is introduced and a metalanguage is developed in order to deal with the significance of word-order variation in Second Isaiah. According to this model, all languages develop a basic functional pattern into which constituents are placed in a consistent familiar order according to the function that those constituents serve in a discourse context. Additionally, languages develop special positions that can be used to mark constituents with certain functions (Topic, Theme, Setting, Focus, Tail, Vocative and Parenthetical).

A functional pattern (the basic pattern plus the special positions) is outlined for the language of verbal clauses in Isaiah 40-55. Also, rules are written that describe the placement of constituents in the functional pattern. Each of the functions outlined in the model and defined in the metalanguage is illustrated in the language of Isaiah 40-55. Finally, there is a chapter that outlines the many defamiliar, or poetic, patterns found in Isaiah 40-55 due to the foregrounding of the language.

In conclusion, it is observed that the order of constituents in the language of Isaiah 40-55 frequently does not emulate the basic functional pattern. Two explanations are demonstrated for this phenomenon: first Deutero-Isaiah makes frequent use of special positions to mark certain functions; and second, the language of Isaiah 40-55 is foregrounded, or poetic, and highly defamiliarizing.

19. Views of Jerusalem and the Holy Land

Steven Brooke, Research Fellow

Views of Jerusalem and the Holy Land will be submitted for publication in November, 1997 to Rizzoli International (240pp). It consists of 200 black-and-white photographs of secular and venerated sites in Jerusalem and along the roads historically used to defend the city. Also included are landscape views critical to understanding the intimate relationship between geography and event. Essays (30pp) on the history, geography, and depiction of Jerusalem accompany descriptive text for each photograph. A five-year exhibition tour is planned.

Brooke's work is inspired by the seventeenth and eighteenth century vedute (viewpainting) tradition of Vermeer, Piranesi, and Canaletto which came to the Holy Land in earnest in the nineteenth century. It was brought by clergymen seeking to validate Bible narrative, scholars (from many disciplines) enamored of the past, travelers fascinated by the exotic, and professionals hoping to profit from Western curiosity. Among them were British Protestant artists who favored biblical sites in the immutable open landscape, and French Catholics who depicted architecture and monuments emphasizing religious practice. Their work demonstrates a firm command of the compositional disciplines of the Dutch and Italian vedutisti that are also the core of Brooke's work (see Views of Rome; Rizzoli, 1995).

Travel photography also came of age during this time. Early photographers looked to Jerusalem for scenes that would fit the conventions of the vedutisti and yet convey the documentary sanction that painting could not. They sought to find and depict the foundations of Christian belief as an antidote to Western rationalism. For them, the Bible was a hypothesis that the land itself had to validate. Many works were based on a fundamental belief in the absolute power of specific sites, particularly those sanctified by sacred event. Both engraver and photographer embodied the era's romantic tradition: an awareness of history, an appreciation for nature, a fascination with exotic lands and ruins, and a fondness for church and monarchy. Jerusalem offered them devotional as well as "oriental" sites, and a mutable ideological fabric that could be reinvented by each new artist. Though inspired by the earlier vedute tradition, Brooke has unique, late twentieth century problems to solve. These include dramatically constricted classic viewpoints, tragically neglected antiquities, the unavoidable backdrop of incongruous contemporary architecture, and capricious restrictions on access to religious sites. Brooke uses the nineteenth century engravings as antecedent material to examine the viewpainting tradition in Jerusalem itself. Many of Brooke's views reflect the fact that, even without the nineteenth century artist's agenda of confirming biblical narrative, it is impossible to escape the crush of history associated with nearly every boulder and hill.

20. Late Iron Age II 'Basket Pendants' in the Mediterranean Region: Origin, Distribution, Chronology and Significance

Amir Golani, Research Fellow; M.A., Hebrew University

Basket pendants are a specific form of jewelry that originated in the southern Levant during the Late Iron Age I period (eleventh to tenth centuries BCE) and became popular during the late Iron Age II period (seventh to fifth centuries BCE). In the late Iron Age II, these pendants are found primarily at Phoenician settlement sites, suggesting that it was this culture that was responsible for their distribution throughout the Mediterranean. Basket pendants may have been a miniaturized depiction of a portable altar or shrine, while the pyramidal structure or protrusion found within them may be a symbolic, stylized representation of the Phoenician goddess Tanit.

21. A Microarchaeological Study of Tel Miqne-Ekron

Azriel Gorski, Research Fellow (Weizmann Institute of Science Fellow); Ph.D. Candidate, Hebrew University

This project will test a "marriage" of forensic science and archaeology. It will utilize forensic science techniques and microbiological techniques to provide information on Tel Miqne- Ekron. Three Israeli research institutions, The Hebrew University, The Ben Gurion University and the Division of Identification and Forensic Science and one American research institute, the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, will be involved in this project. A microscope-based examination of the small and microscopic material collected from the living surfaces the Tel Miqne-Ekron will be conducted. This can yield not only data but insights into the ancient human activities at the site. The forensic sciences already use the identification of fibers and microparticles to provide such information on past human activities. Microbiological techniques based on the morphology of parasite eggs and microscopic remains of plants are used to provide diagnosis of disease and dietary information. Fibers, microparticles, calcified parasite eggs, and food particles have been found in archaeological samples dating back into ancient times. Thus, forensic and microbiological techniques can be applied to archaeological samples. This is not routinely done.

During its 1996 summer excavation at Tel Miqne-Ekron, samples were collected, documented and part of each sample processed on site. The original sample and the processed portion were saved for later laboratory examination. This was done in conjunction with the site archaeologists to ensure that there would be an integration of both the microscopic and other archaeological data. This integration is vital if the findings are to have value.

Some basic microscopic examinations were conducted on site during the excavation to provide real time information to the archaeologists and answer questions posed by them. The preliminary analyses on site revealed that the soil sample was rich in microartifacts, which varied from living surface to living surface. The laboratory-based examinations will concentrate on designing extraction schemes, looking at the finer particles, developing data bases, and modifying forensic guidelines for interpretation to suit the needs of archaeology. The main focus of this project will be to obtain information on the human activities of the Tel Miqne-Ekron site's inhabitants, primarily during the Iron Age (1200-600 BCE). While it will provide information and techniques for this site in particular, the techniques and guidelines for interpretation that will be developed will be available for application to other sites.

22. The Aegean and Egyptian Impact on Canaan during the 13th and 12th Centuries BCE: A Typological, Technological, and Functional Analysis of the Ceramic Evidence

Ann Killebrew, Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, Hebrew University

The Late Bronze Age is often characterized as a period of international trade and interconnections between the various regions of the eastern Mediterranean. At the dawn of the twelvth century BCE, scholars have traditionally claimed that there was a breakdown of these close ties, resulting in the cessation of international trade and the cultural and political fragmentation of peoples previously unified under Egyptian, Hittite, or Aegean suzerainty. This interpretation of the material culture evidence is reexamined based on the ceramic assemblages of the thirteenth to twelvth centuries from Tel Miqne-Ekron, Deir el-Balah, Tel Beth Shean and Giloh-each site representing a different aspect of this culturally diverse period.

Aegean interaction with the east is well-documented, especially during the thirteenth century BCE in Canaan. The most ubiquitous evidence for this contact is Mycenaean IIIB pottery, the majority imported from mainland Greece and the western Aegean, which has been uncovered at most LB IIB sites in Syria-Palestine including Tel Miqne-Ekron, Deir el-Balah, and Beth Shean. Containers, or closed forms such as stirrup and piriform jars, amphoroid kraters, flasks, and alabastra, are by far the most common imported types. Aegean material culture imported from mainland Greece disappears in Canaan at the end of the Late Helladic IIIB period. However, Aegean-inspired objects continue to appear sporadically during the twelvth century BCE at several sites, such as Beth Shean, and in overwhelming quantities at Tel Miqne-Ekron. At Both Shean, the small numbers of non-mainland imported Aegean-style vessels, termed Mycenaean IIIC:1 pottery, are usuallly containers, mainly stirrup jars and flasks. In contrast, Aegean-inpired pottery forms, which are locally produced at Tel Miqne-Ekron and are also referred to as Mycenaean IIIC:lb pottery, are usually tablewares and cooking pots.

Egyptian-style objects, so common in thirteenth century levels at sites in Canaan, especially southern Canaan and Beth Shean, continue to appear in significant amounts in post-Late Bronze II levels at sites such as Beth Shean. A well-developed potters' craft. producing Egyptian-style ceramics identical to that produced in later New Kingdom sites in Egypt, flourishes into the mid-twelvth century BCE. Due to the typological and technological similarities with Egyptian pottery produced in Egypt, a signficant Egyptian presence is suggested at Beth Shean and at several sites along the Jordan Valley and in southern Canaan during the Iron IA period.

This research explores the implications of the types and function of thirteenth to twelvth century Aegean and Egyptian style ceramics. the various production centers, and their distribution in Canaan in light of the changing relationship between Canaan and other regions of the eastern Mediterranean during the latter part of the second millennium BCE.

23. Coele Syria and the Ituraeans

Elaine Myers, Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, University of Toronto

The main focus of this year's research has been to formulate a thesis proposal, recently submitted to the University of Toronto and titled "Ituraeans and the Cult and Stelae of Har Sena'im." It will attempt to clarify several important features of Ituraean religion and cult. The process will be twofold: to assemble the known evidence with a view to presenting a coherent and well-balanced portrait of an "unknown" people and to concentrate on Mt. Hermon and the cult sites in its environs that may provide a possible means for identifying Ituraean cult.

Until this century, knowledge of the Ituraeans has been limited to the historical literary texts as seen in the writings of Strabo, Polybius, Appian and especially Josephus. Interpretation of these texts has supported a belief that the Ituraeans were a nomadic people who came to inhabit the geographical areas of the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, the Hermon, the Beqa' valley, the northern Galilee and the Golan. Both literary and numismatic evidence indicates that by the first century BCE they had formed a principality centered in the southern Beqa' with Chalcis and Libanum as the administrative and political center. In the northern Beqa', Baalbek/Heliopolis was to be the main religious center.

Surveys and excavations conducted in the 1980s within the region of the southern Hermon have revealed many cult and settlement sites. Among these is Har Sena'im, situated along the southern Hermon ridge, which has provided many interesting and enigmatic finds.

Two standing limestone stelae found in situ in what has been labelled "Structure 7" close to the Upper Cult enclosure, will provide the central focus for this research and thesis. A full study of their significance and the historical sanctity of the region will assist in understanding Ituraean cult practice and ethnic identity.

24. The Pottery of Early Bronze Age Tell Taannek

Mark Ziese, Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, Andrews University

It is the purpose of this project to prepare for publication the Early Bronze Age ceramic corpus from the Joint Concordia-ASOR Excavations at Tell Taannek (Taanach) conducted between 1963 and 1968 under the direction of P. Lapp. Study of this corpus from a "homo faber" perspective was initiated by A. Glock but was left incomplete (1975). New efforts were initiated in the fall of 1996 at the Palestinian Institute of Archaeology (Birzeit University) and have resulted in an outline of the EB strata, the identification of "secure" EB loci, the isolation of a ceramic sample of some 2,500 sherds, the coding of these sherds according to categories of fabric, form and finish, the preparation of inked profile drawings, and conclusions concerning synchronic and diachronic dynamics.

A reevaluation of Glock's "fabric families" was also initiated with the technical assistance of the staff of the PIA. Two samples from each of Glock's twenty-five EB "families" were subjected to thin section analysis. Preliminary results challenge Glock's clustering, but more importantly, will prove useful in placing the corpus in its larger regional context.

Finally, beyond these more traditional tasks, it is proposed that the study be presented from the perspective of a Food System Concept. Hence, the humble potsherd is viewed not only as a diachronic tool for present investigation, but as a discrete correlate of food systems. Put differently, the interpretive challenge is this: what do ceramic residues suggest about how the EB population of Tell Taannek "procured, processed, distributed, prepared or consumed food and disposed of food remains" (LaBianca 1990: 9)? Food system correlates, therefore, will be identified, operationalized, and tested. In the process, the relationship between pottery form and function will be explored.

Given the unique position of Tell Taannek from both a spatial and temporal perspective, it will be possible to integrate site-specific data to the recent work of Falconer (1987), Esse (1991), and Joffe (1993) who have used larger, regional approaches to discuss the nature of a society dubbed "small-scale," "complex," and possibly "urban."


25. Islamic Jerusalem: Marwan Abu Khalaf, Senior Fellow; Academic Director, Institute of Islamic Archaeology, al-Quds University.

26. Aegean Affinities of Philistine Material Culture: The Iron Age I at Ekron: Trude Dothan, Senior Fellow; Professor Emerita, Hebrew University.

27. Hellenistic to Late Roman Pottery in the Syro-Palestinian Area: Barbara Johnson, Senior Fellow; Independent Researcher.

28. The Complexity and Ideology of the Book of Leviticus: Jacob Milgrom, Senior Fellow; Professor Emeritus, University of California at Berkeley.

29. An Evaluation of the Philological Evidence for the Canaanites: Khaled Nashef, Senior Fellow; Director, Palestinian Institute of Archaeology, Birzeit University.

30. Culture and Polity in Ancient Israel: Shalom Paul, Senior Fellow; Professor of Bible, Hebrew University.

31. Final Publication of the 1982-88 Seasons of Excavation of the University of South Florida Excavations at Sepphoris, Israel: James Strange, Senior Fellow; Professor of Religious Studies, University of South Florida.

32. * Tel Megadim Publication Project: Samuel R. Wolff, Senior Fellow; Archaeologist/Researcher, Israel Antiquities Authority.

33. * Tel Yaqush Publication Project: SeJin Koh, Post-Doctoral Fellow; Jerusalem University College.

34. Harbor and Hinterland: Territoriality and Regional Exchange on the Phoenician Coast during the Iron Age: Gunnar Lehmann, Post-Doctoral Fellow.

35. Ancient Samaria: History and Society: William Schniedewind, Post-Doctoral Fellow; University of California-Los Angeles.

36. * The Phoenicians on the Northern Shore of Israel: A Reappraisal: Carolina Aznar, Research Fellow; University Complutense of Madrid.

37. Islamic Numismatics: 'Isa Baidun, Research Fellow; Institute of Islamic Archaeology, al-Quds University.

38. Women's 'Extra-Familial' Economic Roles in Ancient Israel: Ann Fritschel, Research Fellow; Emory University.

39. The Fourth Millennium BC: The Development of Pastoral Society: Avner Goren, Research Fellow; Hebrew University.

40. Exterior Stonework of Selected Old City Religious Sites: A Visual Study: David Kurtzer; Yale University.

41. * Regional Settings in the Land of the Bible: James M. Monson, Research Fellow.

42. * Palaces in Palestine of the Early Bronze through the Late Iron Age: Hani Nur-el-Din, Research Fellow; Institute of Islamic Archaeology, al-Quds University.

43. ** An Archaeometric Study of Intercultural Exchange between the Philistines and the Judeans in the Late Iron Age II at Tel Miqne-Ekron: Phase II: Benjamin Porter, Research Fellow; B.A. Candidate, University of Wyoming.

44. A Typological Study of the Pre-604 BCE Iron II Pottery from Ashkelon: Todd K. Sanders, Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, Harvard University.

45. * Lead Isotope Analysis as a Tool in the Source Determination of Iron Ores and Artefacts from Ancient Israel: Haddon Wright, Research Fellow; Ph.D. Candidate, MacQuarie University, Australia.

* Continuation of 1995/96 projects; see reports in BASOR 303 (1996):79-93. ** Continuation of 1995/96 project No. 14, Vikesh Singh; see reports in BASOR 303 (1996):79-93.

News & Notices

Excavations Completed at Chalcolithic Cemetery

Nicosia, Aug 29 (CNA) - Excavations yielding significant finds dating back thousands of years, have wrapped at the chalcolithic cemetery at the location "Vathyrkakas" at Souskiou Paphos, the Department of Antiquities announced.

Despite the fact that the majority of the tombs at this prehistoric Cypriot cemetery had been looted in the past, the excavations brought to light extraordinary movable finds which shed light on certain aspects of prehistoric Cyprus, particularly religious rituals.

The most important finds are two cruciform picrolite idols, a unique clay idol of a pregnant woman, a unique askos with conical projections all over the body in the form of a bunch of grapes and various other vessels decorated with red geometric motifs on a white background. Both the cruciform idols and the terra-cotta idol of the pregnant woman may represent the divinity of fertility, which is known to have been worshiped in Cyprus in the Neolithic period. These finds of major importance date between 3500 and 3000 B.C.

The excavations were conducted under the direction of ex-Director of the Department of Antiquities Dr. Demos Christou and under the supervision of the archaeologist Evi Baxevani and a team of students from the Universities of Athens and Edinburgh, assisted by Antiquities Department technician, Onesiforos Loukaides.


Scholars Press has announced the appointment of Rex D. Matthews as Editorial Director of the Press effective September 15, 1997. The position of editorial director is a new one for the Scholars Press consortium. It carries responsibility for giving leadership to the consortium publishing program in its broad spectrum from acquisitions through the marketing process.

Matthews, who has been with Abingdon Press since 1986, served as Senior Editor there for the past eight years. At Abingdon, he provided strategic leadership in building the list of academic books in religion. He earned his B.A. degree from Birmingham-Southern College where he majored in philosophy and religion, graduating in 1972. Both his M.Div. and Th.D. degrees are from Harvard Divinity School.

At Scholars Press, Dr. Matthews will assist sponsors in their publication programs. He will act in an advisory capacity to the many editors who serve the consortium, will facilitate the acquisitions process, and will assist in recruiting and training new editors. In addition, he will oversee the marketing process and will assist the Press and its sponsors in defining and scheduling overall marketing stragety.

Michael C. Carlos Museum
Sepphoris in Galilee: Crosscurrents of Culture
January 24 to April 12, 1998

This exhibition spans many centuries in the life of Sepphoris, from the Late Bronze Age to the Byzantine period, and focuses more specifically on the following topics: rulers and rabbis; synagogues; tombs and burial customs; languages; the Jewish, Graeco-Roman, and Christian religions in Sepphoris; as well as daily life in the Roman and Byzantine periods. The show will display a good selection of objects coming from the thorough excavations of the site by American and Israeli teams, including mosaics; bronze, silver, terracotta, and stone sculptures and objects; terracota and glass vessles; jewelry; coins; and lamps, as well as great didactic material, including architectural models, maps, and photographs. This exhibit is currently on view at the North Carolina Museum of Art.