All Archaeology Courses

CAS AR100 Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Illustrated lectures focus on the important discoveries of the discipline of archaeology. Course covers the whole of human prehistory around the world. Archaeological methods are described, along with the great ancient sites: Olduvai, Lascaux, Stonehenge, Egyptian Pyramids, Machu Picchu.  Lecture and Discussion.  (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills Department area requirements).

CAS AR101 Introduction to Archaeology
Theory, methods and aims of prehistoric and historical archaeology in the Old and New Worlds. Excavation and recovery of archaeological data; dating techniques; interpretation of finds; relation of archaeology to history and other disciplines. Examination of several Old and New World cultures.  Lecture and Discussion.  (Course fulfills social sciences distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department requirement).

CAS AR200 Heritage Matters: Introduction to Heritage Management
Protection and management of archaeological heritage, including sites, artifacts, and monuments.  Survey of heritage values and stakeholders.  Issues covered include policy and legislation, U.S. preservation system, international efforts, indigenous perspectives, looting, repatriation, underwater heritage, and heritage at war.  (Course fulfills social science distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR201 Americas Before Columbus
An introduction to the archaeology and civilizations of the pre-Columbian Americas.  Topics progress chronologically as well as comparatively, with cases drawn from Native American cultures of the North America, Mesoamerica, and South America. (Course fulfills social sciences distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR202 Archaeological Mysteries: Pseudoscience and Fallacy in the Human Past
This Course investigates pseudoscientific claims about the past based on case studies claiming to solve archaeological mysteries, and subjects them to the test of evidence using the scientific method. Topics: Atlantis, ancient extraterrestials, Pyramids, Stonehenge, crop marks, Noah’s Ark, etc.  (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR205 Origins of Civilization
The comparison of origins and institutions of civilizations in the Old and New Worlds, including the first state-organized societies of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, China, the Aegean, Mesoamerica, and Peru.  (Course fulfills Social Science distribution.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR206 Ancient Technology
Traces the related evolution of technology and culture over the first million years of human existence. Case studies focus on the interaction between early technology and social structure, values, and institutions. Lectures and hands-on experience with ceramics, stone, and metallurgy.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR208 Lost Languages and Decipherments
An overview of the archaeology of writing focusing on modern decipherments of ancient texts. Related topics include characteristics of the world’s major language families, the nature of linguistic change, and the origin and history of the alphabet.  (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR209 The Near East Bronze Age
Examines the wealth and power of the ancient Near East and Egypt during the Bronze Age. Topics include the establishment of power, long distance exchange and interaction, ethnicity, architecture, and environmental and ecological factors affecting the civilizations.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR 210 Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations
Traces the rise and fall of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations from their Stone Age roots to the end of the Bronze Age. Subjects include art, architecture, economic, social, political, and religious characteristics, and theoretical explanations of cultural change.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR 215 The Contested Past
Examination of the diverse and often conflicting values associated with archaeological objects, ancient monuments, and cultural sites. Case studies (including the Elgin Marbles) highlight contemporary controversies over ownership, appropriation, use, and abuse of the material remains of the past.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR221 Archaeology of the Islamic World
An overview of the Archaeology of the Islamic world during 7th to 18th centuries CE. Focus on ancient cities, religious and secular buildings like gardens, palaces, forts, mausoleums and mosques and study of ceramics, calligraphy, metal and glassware, trade routes and Islamic crafts.  (Course fulfills department area or topical requirement.)

CAS AR222 Art and Architecture of Ancient America
This course will introduce the major styles and monuments of the art and architecture of ancient Mesoamerica and the Andes from the first millennium BC to the 16th century AD Major areas to be studied include Mexico, Guatemala, and Peru.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR230 Introduction to Greek and Roman Archaeology
How material remains help us understand aspects of Ancient Greek and Roman cultures in their historical development: religious and civic spaces; the culture of affluence; imperial identity; and the transformations that mark the end of classical antiquity. (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR232 Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
The technology, economy, social life, political organization, religions, art, and architecture of Egypt from predynastic times through the Hellenistic period, based on archaeological and historical sources. Emphasis on the period of the Pharaohs (ca. 3200-323 BC).  (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR240 The Archaeology of Ancient China
This course examines the Archaeology of Ancient China from the Neolithic through the Bronze Age (7000 to 221 BCE). Particular attention will be paid to the interaction between technology and the acquisition of political, religious, and social power. (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR250 The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors: Archaeology of Mesoamerica
Analysis of major events and processes of the Mesoamerican area. Topics include the arrival of man; development of regional patterns; origin of food, production; the rise of towns, temples, and urbanism; the origin of the state, the development of the empires. (Course fulfills social sciences distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR251 Ancient Maya Civilization
A survey of current knowledge and scholarship about the Maya civilization, which flourished in Central America between 250-900 AD, its earlier beginnings and subsequent collapse, and aspects of its economic and social basis and artistic and intellectual achievements. (Course fulfills humanities distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR261 Asia’s Ancient Cultures and Civilizations
Study of Asia’s ancient civilizations known as the Indus, Oxus, Khmer, and Shang. Outstanding cities; sacred Buddhist, Jain, Hindu, and Judeo-Christian/Islamic centers; elaborate caves; unique burial sites like the Taj Mahal and royal tombs; historic gardens symbolizing “Paradise on Earth”; and architectural marvels like the Great Wall. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR262 Asian Gods & Goddesses
Representation, meaning, and mystery of gods and goddesses of South and East Asian cultures, from prehistory to the present. Mother, fertility, and tree goddesses; deities of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. Evidence from archaeology, rock engravings, religious shrines, and other sources. (Course fulfills department area or topical requirement.)

CAS AR270 Archaeology of the Age of Exploration
Archaeological evidence for Columbus’ voyage and its aftermath. Topics include coastal exploration, early settlement, and cultural contacts between Europeans and Native Americans. Evidence from both land and underwater excavations will be presented. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR273 Archaeology of the Viking Age
Archaeological evidence of Viking life and culture. Topics include home life, ships and shipbuilding, trade, warfare, religion, art, colonization; detailed examination of major terrestrial and underwater archaeological excavations in Europe, Greenland, and North America. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR280 Eating and Drinking in the Ancient World
Food stands at the intersection of nature and culture; it is a requirement for life yet it is always encoded with cultural meanings. Food can reveal aspects of social identity, politics and power, economics, environmental management, and religious beliefs. In this course, we will explore past societies through the archaeological study of food, drink, and medicinal substances. This survey will encompass the evolution of the human diet—from foraging to farming to the effects of industrialization, colonialism, and globalization—the cultural transformation of food from ingredients to cuisine, feasting, agricultural production, and other topics relevant to the study of food both past and present. We will focus on archaeological materials and case studies from throughout the world to achieve a cross-cultural understanding of the complex interplay between humans and food. The course will employ lectures, readings, discussions, field trips, a food journal, and other “food experiences” to demonstrate the impact of ancient diets on health, society, and the environment.  (Course fulfills social sciences distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR283 North American Archaeology
North American prehistory from initial peopling of continent to development of complex societies.  Explores human entry into the New World; migration across North America; subsistence changes; human effects on landscape; encounters with Europeans; role of archaeology in contemporary Native cultures.  (Course fulfills Social Science Divisional Studies.  Course fulfills department area.)

CAS AR290 Human Impacts on Ancient Environments
Examination of human impacts on the global landscape over the past 10,000 years through migration, hunting, disease, agriculture, and other cultural activities; implications for contemporary and future resources management and environmental policy.  (Course fulfills social sciences distribution requirement.  Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR305 Paleolithic Archaeology
Introduction to the emergence of culture and the reconstruction of early lifeways from archaeological evidence. Topics include early humans in Africa, Asia, and Europe; Neanderthals; the first Americans; and the prelude to agriculture. (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR 307 Archaeological Science
Prerequisite: AR101 or consent of instructor. Natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology) form an integral part of modern archaeology and are applied to issues of dating, reconstructing past environments and diets, and analysis of mineral and biological remains. Laboratories concentrate on biological, geological, physical and chemical approaches.  Lecture and Lab.  (Course fulfills department requirement.) This course is only offered in the Fall semester.

CAS AR322 Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations
The conquests, trades, society, history and religion, art and architecture of the ancient Aztec and Inca empires in Mexico and Peru, as revealed archaeologically and in the accounts of their Spanish conquerors.  (Cross-listed with AH322 and GRS AR722).  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR323 Maya Art and Architecture
This course introduces the styles and iconography of Maya sculpture, painting and architecture from Preclassic origins on the epi-Olmec Gulf coast, and the southern coast and highlands of Guatemala; then north into the south and central lowlands and the Classic Period florescence at Tikal, Copan, and Palenque, followed by the architectural innovations of the North, the hybrid grandeur of Chichen Itza, and finally the “international style” at the peripheries of the Classic Maya regions (AD 100-1400).   (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR330 Greek Archaeology
Archaeology in Greek lands from the Iron Age to the first century BC; aims and methods of Classical archaeology; correlations with anthropology, art history, history and literature. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR331 Etruscan and Roman Archaeology
Cultural evolution on the Italian peninsula from the early Iron Age to the fall of Rome (1100 BC to AD 476). Origins and developments of Etruscan civilization; Italic peoples and the rise of Rome; Roman religion, economy, arts, architecture, and social and civic institutions. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR332 Greek and Roman Cities
Follows the development of urban centers in the Greco-Roman world from the Late Bronze Age through the Roman period. Topics include state formation, urban architecture and infrastructure, public and private buildings and monuments, and social dynamics of urban culture. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR 335 Mystery Cults in the Graeco-Roman World
Lectures and discussions on the evolution and nature of mystery cults in the Graeco-Roman World from the 7th c. BC to Late Antiquity. The course will be concerned with the rituals, belief systems, iconography, and sanctuaries of select cults, including Demeter and Kore, Dionysus, Cybele and Attis, Isis, the Syrian deities, and Mithras. Evidence will be drawn from archaeology, art history, literature, and inscriptions. (Course fulfills department area or topical requirement.)

CAS AR337 The Wine Dark Sea: Material Culture and Individual Identity in the World of Homer
This course examines the interconnected cultures of the eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age (c. 1400–1200 BCE) through the Achaemenid period (c. 5–4th C. BCE), with a focus on the material correlates of identity. (Course fulfills department area requirement).

CAS AR338 Mare Nostrum: Material Culture and Individual Identity after Alexander
This course examines the interconnected cultures of the eastern Mediterranean from the era of Alexander the Great (4th century BCE) through the Roman emperors period (c. 2nd-3rd centuries CE), with a focus on the material correlates of identity.  Meets with GRS AR738. (Course fulfills department area requirement).

CAS AR341 Archaeology of Mesopotamia
An overview of the core area of the ancient Near East from the introduction of agriculture to the Hellenistic era. Emphasis will be on the genesis of urban society and its transformation under the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Persians.  Meets with GRS AR741.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR342 Archaeology in the Holy Land
In Israel, archaeology is part of current events. We study remains from the Israelite to the Moslem conquests (c. 1200 BCE – 640 CE) to learn how material evidence created and still plays a role in a larger historical drama.  Meets with GRS AR742.  Cross lists with CAS RN390/690 & STH TX815.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR343 Anatolian Archaeology
An historically oriented survey of the material remains of the ancient cultures of Turkey and northwest Iran from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic Period. Emphasis is on the Hittite Empire and civilizations that succeeded it in the first millennium. Meets with GRS AR743. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR 345 Introduction to Archaeological Field Methods: Getting the Context Right
Prerequisite: CASAR101 or consent of instructor. Acquaints students with some basic techniques used in modern archaeology prior to a full field school experience. Hands-on field and laboratory work, as well as examples from the literature, illustrate the techniques and concepts employed in the course.

CAS AR346 Seminar: The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
Examines the prehistoric and early historical origins of ancient Egyptian civilization, major institutions of the culture, and culture changes through time. Major topics such as changing socio-political organization, demography and the economic system, and beliefs/religion will be studied.  Meets with GRS AR746.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR347 Egypt and Northeast Africa: Early States in Egypt, Nubia and Eritrea/Ethiopia
This course focuses on early states in northeast Africa, in Egypt, Nubia, and Eritrea/Ethiopia.  Comparative analyses include socio-economic institutions, kingship, burial practices and religions of these early states, concentrating on archaeological as well as textual evidence.  Meets with GRS AR747.  (Course fulfills department area requirements.)

CAS AR 348 Gods, Graves and Pyramids: Ancient Egyptian Religion and Ritual
The ancient Egyptians created monumental evidence of their belief systems, relating to both state religion and the mortuary cult. This course examines ancient Egyptian religion from the evidence of tombs, both royal and private, as well as the temple – all of which evolved over the course of 3,000 years of the pharaonic state. Additionally, hieroglyphic texts associated with these monuments will be studied in translation. These texts not only greatly expand what is known about ancient Egyptian beliefs, but also the rituals that were practiced within Egyptian temples and tomb complexes. The purpose of this course is to provide a better understanding of the beliefs of the ancient Egyptians, from their origins in Predynastic and Early Dynastic times to the development of the great temple complexes in the New Kingdom and later, based on a broad synthesis of the data: archaeological, architectural and textual.

CAS AR353 Urbanism in Ancient Mesoamerica
Prerequisite: AR100, or AR101, or consent of instructor.  Comparative study of ancient Mesoamerican cities, including the Aztecs, Maya, and their predecessors, focusing on urban functions, cosmological symbolism, and development over time (ca. 1000 BC – AD 1500).  (Course fulfills department area or topical requirement.)

CAS AR360 The Indus Valley
Course focuses on the archaeological evidence for antecedents of the Indus Civilization and cultural processses leading to its climax and decline (3000-100 BC). Involves in-depth study of socio-economic, political and religious complexities of its organization, technology, settlement patterns, architecture, subsistence, inter-regional trades and relationships with contemporary civilizations. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR370 Archaeology of Colonial America
Introduction to the archaeology of American life in the Colonial Period. A consideration of the material culture of early America, including architecture, artifacts, complete sites, and the use of archaeology to confirm or modify the written record.  Meets with GRS AR770.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR371 Archaeology of Post-Colonial America
The archaeology of America from the Revolution to the present. Deals with the social history, industry, and the material culture of recent and modern Americans.  Meets with GRS AR771.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR372 Archaeology of Boston
Boston’s buried history revealed through excavated artifacts and features. Tours of archaeological laboratories, Boston’s neighborhoods, burying grounds, waterfront, and Harbor Islands. “Big Dig” finds in Charlestown, Mill Pond, North End; Fanueil Hall, Blackstone Block, Boston Common, and Paul Revere House. Meets with GRS AR772.  This course is usually offered in the summer.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR375 Oral History and Written Records in Archaeology
A practical introduction to the use of archival and oral sources in text-aided archaeology; surveys the use of oral and documentary sources by archaeologists, giving attention to the type and scope of documents-defined in the broadest sense-available. Critical analysis of documents as a step in constructing anthropological history, historical ethnography, and the “new culture history” as well as the interaction of history, anthropology and material culture studies in historical archaeology. Meets with GRS AR775.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR381 Introduction to Paleoethnobotany
Introduces the method and theory of the study of the uses of plants by humans derived from evidence presented in the archaeological record, the relationship between humans and their environment, and the relationship between the environment, and the Archaeological record. Laboratory sessions concentrate on identification, and a Project using Archaeological samples. Lecture and Lab.  Meets with GRS AR881.   (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR382 Zooarchaeology
Introduction to archaeological analysis of animal bones. Provides a basis for the use of faunal remains in the investigation of paleoecology, analysis of archaeological site formation histories, and techniques for interpreting human subsistence activities.  Lecture and Lab.  Meets with GRS AR782.  (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR390 The Archaeology of Southeast Asia
Examines the prehistoric and historic cultures of Southeast Asia, including the first arrival of humans, regional neolithic and Bronze Age communities, early states, maritime trading networks, as well as political motivations in archaeology and the illicit Asian antiquities trade. Meets with AR790. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR393 Out of the Fiery Furnace: Early Metallurgy of the Pre-industrial World
Technology is a central part of the human experience, and the development of metallurgy stands out as one technology that was mastered by some cultures, and virtually ignored by others. This course explores all aspects of the development of copper, bronze, gold, silver, iron, and other metals among the prehistoric and early historic cultures across Asia. By first providing an understanding of the technical aspects of mining, smelting, casting, alloying, and finishing, the course then looks at this technology within a much broader context, examining its varied roles and impact in the ritual, military, symbolic, and economic aspects of these cultures. Its prominence in the modern antiquities trade is also examined, as is its manipulation as a potent tool in modern nationalistic debates. Open to all interested students in all departments. Meets with GRS AR793.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR396 Cultural Heritage and Diplomacy
Course considers place of heritage in archaeology and cultural diplomacy; art architecture as cultural ambassadors; culture representation in museums and cultural landscapes; international art law; cultural affairs in U.S. embassies; the State Department; strategic impact of heritage in promoting U.S. foreign policy.  Cross listed with CAS IR396/796 meets with GRS AR796.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR400 Statistics and Computer Sciences for the Archaeologist
Elementary and intermediate application of the computer to archaeological data analysis, derivation and interpretation of the structure of archaeological data assemblages in terms of statistical and mathematical models. (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR404 Archaeological and Ethnographic Materials: Analysis & Preservation
Prerequisite: at least one AR course at 200 level or equivalent or consent of instructor.  Primary field recovery techniques, laboratory analysis, and laboratory experience in conservation methods for archaeological materials including pottery, wood, bone, metals, stone, leather, fabrics, basketry, paper, and floral remains. Lecture and Lab.  (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR435 Topics in the Materiality of Ancient Mediterranean Religions
Pre requisite: Prior coursework in Archaeology or in ancient religions (Classics/RN/Hist/STh), or permission of the instructor.  Investigates manifestations and contexts of religion in the Greco-Roman world, including iconographic, architectural, votive, magical, and archaeological remains, and drawing on theories of space, image, and ritual performance.   Individual topics will address historical periods or specific themes in religious materiality. Cross-listed with AR735, RN490, and RN790.

CAS AR450 Methods and Theory in Archaeology
Senior capstone seminar dealing with the intellectual history of the discipline, research methods, concepts, and problems in archaeological theory, and the formulation of research designs.  (Course fulfills department requirement.)

CAS AR451 Seminar in Mesoamerican Archaeology
(Prerequisite: AR222, AR250, AR251, AR322, AR323, AR353, or consent) Mesoamerican Archaeology: Advanced seminar covering major events and processes of the Mesoamerican culture region.  Topics vary by semester, but may include issues such as early villages, urbanization, state formation, households, religion, economy and exchange, and the Spanish conquest and early colonialism.  Meets with GRS AR751. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR480 Archaeological Ethics and The Law
In this course students examine archaeology and professional ethics; archaeology as public interest; legal organization of archaeology; international approaches to heritage management; looting, collecting and the antiquities market; maritime law and underwater archaeology; cultural resource management in the United States.  Meets with GRS AR780.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR503 Archaeological Field Methods: Survey and Excavation
Prereq: CAS AR 101 or consent of instructor.
Archaeological field school with intensive study of archaeological techniques and procedures. Direct involvement in field excavation, assisting in data recording, and in the description and inventory of artifacts and specimens. Field, lab and/or lecture involvement; requires six to seven hours a day, five days a week. Various locations around the world.  (Course fulfills department field school requirement.)

CAS AR 504 Preserving World Heritage: Principles and Practice
Examination of fundamental issues of preservation and management of World Heritage sites, implementation of UNESCO’s Conventions, Recommendations and Charters; selection, evaluation, and nomination of cultural properties for inscription as World Heritage sites and their protection from human and natural causes.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR505 Remote Sensing and Archaeology
Prereq: Two archaeology courses or consent of instructor.
Lecture/laboratory course introducing students to applications of remote sensing in archaeology. A variety of geophysical survey methods as well as multispectral image analysis are taught. Topics include the use of remotely sensed data for regional analysis, the discovery and mapping of buried archaeological features, and computer analysis of multispectral data. (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR506 Regional Archaeology and Geographical Information Systems
Prerequisite: Two archaeology courses or consent of instructor.
Advanced computer (GIS) techniques are used to address regional archaeological problems. This applied course examines digital encoding and manipulation of archaeological and environmental data, and methods for testing hypotheses, analyzing, and modeling the archaeological record. (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR507 Lay of the Land: Surface and Subsurface Mapping in Archaeology
This course integrates classroom, lab, and field instruction to provide students understanding and practical field skills in archaeological surface and subsurface mapping.  Coverage includes point-based surveying, ground-based and photogrammetric surface modeling, aerial image digitization, and archaeogeophysical prospection.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR509 Geoarchaeology
Prerequisite: CAS AR 101 or consent of instructor.
Lecture/laboratory course illustrating the use of geological concepts and methods in the study of archaeological problems. Topics include: stratigraphy and stratigraphic principles, geological environments and earth-surface processes, anthropogenic sediments, archaeological materials and their analysis; the formation of archaeological sites. Field trips in the Boston area.  (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR510 Proposal Writing for Social Science Research
Prereq: admission to AR Honors Program or advanced undergraduate standing with consent of instructor. Grad Prereq: graduate student standing in the social sciences or humanities. The purpose of this course is to turn students’ intellectual interests into answerable, field-based research questions. The goal is the production of a project proposal for future research.  (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR511 Studies in European Archaeology
Topics vary. Intensive coverage of particular periods, sub-areas, or events in European prehistory (Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, Western Europe or Eastern Europe, population migrations, etc.) as selected by instructor. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR512 Laboratory and Field Methods in Geoarchaeology
Introduction to laboratory and field methods used in Geoarchaeology, including description of field profiles and settings; map (topographic, geological, soil survey) and aerial photo interpretation; laboratory analytical techniques, such as soil micromorphology, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR).  (Course fulfills partial department technical requirement.)

CAS AR513 Studies in African Archaeology
Topics vary. Intensive coverage of particular periods or sub-areas in Africa as selected by the instructor. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR515 Micromorphology of Terrestrial Sediments
Prerequisite: AR101 & AR509, or consent of instructor.
The micromorphological examination and interpretation of soils, sediments, and archaeological and anthropogenic materials features (e.g., ceramics, bricks, hearths), with focus on the processes of landscape evolution and the mechanisms of archaeological site formation. (Course fulfills department technical requirement.)

CAS AR528 Studies in Mesoamerican Art and Architecture
Topics vary. Studies of ancient Mesoamerican cultures as known from their archaeological sites and reconstructed history as known from their changing plans, architecture, art and iconography. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR531 Studies in Etruscan and Roman Archaeology
Topics Vary.  Intensive coverage of particular periods or sub-areas in Etruscan and Roman archaeology (Etruscan settlements and Roman towns, archaeology of the Roman Republic, Archaeology of the Roman provinces, etc.) as selected by instructor. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR532 Studies in Near and Middle Eastern Archaeology
Topics Vary. Recent offerings have included: Trade in the Near East, Near Eastern Cities of the Bronze and Iron Ages, and Near East Prehistory-Palaeolithic through Neolithic. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR534 Seminar in Roman Art
Topics Vary.  An in-depth study of Pompeii and the other towns buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in August 79 CE. All aspects of the Vesuvian cities will be examined, including urban planning and public architecture (forums, temples, basilicas, theaters, amphitheaters, baths, etc.), private architecture (houses, villas, tombs), mural painting (the Four Pompeian Styles, mythological subjects, history painting, still life), mosaics, sculpture (portraiture, Roman copies of Greek statuary), etc., as well as the current state of the site itself and the impact of tourism.  (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR535 Europe and the Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity
Interdisciplinary overview of Europe and Mediterranean World in the 3rd-6th centuries A.D., based on the archaeological record and material culture (including art), and drawing on history and literature. Topics include: rise of Christianity; town and country; public and private life. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR543 Introduction to Akkadian Cuneiform I
An introduction to the Semitic language that served as the lingua franca in the Near East from ca. 2500-500 BC, with emphasis on reading texts in cuneiform script. (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR544 Introduction to Akkadian Cuneiform II
Completes coverage of the essentials of Akkadian grammar and highlights differences between Assyrian and Babylonian dialects. Readings in cuneiform include sections of the Code of Hammurabi and the Epic of Gilgamesh. (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR551 Studies in Mesoamerican Archaeology
Topics vary. Analysis of major events and processes of the Mesoamerican area. Topics include the arrival of man; development of regional patterns; origin of food production; rise of towns, temples, and urbanism; the origin of state; and the development of empires. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR555 Ancient American Writing Systems
Study of the various writing systems and interdependent Mesoamerican calendar, as found in many media among the pre-Columbian Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Aztec, and Maya cultures, from the last centuries BC to the sixteenth century. (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR556 Archaeological Field Research Experience
Supervised original research in excavation, survey, or field laboratory situation, as art of field study program. (Course fulfills department technical or area requirement.)

CAS AR560 Civilization of Central and South Asia
Emergence, development, and decline of two Bronze Age Civilizations called “Oasis” in Central Asia and Indus/Harappan in South Asia. Focus on comparative study of cultural processes of urbanization, complex social, economic and religious institutions, specialized crafts, and long distance trade. (Course fulfills department area requirement.)

CAS AR570 Studies in Historical Archaeology
Topics vary. Intensive coverage of particular aspects of historical archaeology as selected by instructor. (Course fulfills department topical or technical requirement.)

CAS AR572 Studies in Industrial Archaeology
Topics vary. The study of the remains of our industrial heritage including above-ground excavations. Topics include mills, dams, canals, bridges, and all other material remains of America’s industrial development. Field trips to New England industrial sites. (Course fulfills department topical or area requirement.)

CAS AR576 Collections: Ancient and Historical in Modern Context
Considers ancient and historical objects in collections from historical, functional, material, aesthetic perspectives to understand original cultural context. Case studies demonstrate the changing theory, practice, legal and ethical implications of museum acquisition and display. (Course fulfills department topical requirements.)

CAS AR577 Pots and Pans: Material Culture of Food
Exploration of the food cultures and technologies through material culture- pots, pans, and utensils. Course will range broadly across cultures, time, and space with emphasis on medieval and early modern times. Life histories of humble, overlooked, everyday objects associated with food preparation and consumption; kitchens from prehistory to the present; tradition and fashion in cooking & dining vessels; pots and cooking technology; pots as metaphors & symbols.  (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR580 Studies in Archaeological Heritage Management Archaeological Collections Management: Curation and Public Interpretation
Introduction to Heritage Management with a focus on European case studies. This course involves both theory and practice of various themes of Cultural Heritage Management, understood in a broad sense and with an interdisciplinary approach. It involves topics such as the value and significance of cultural sites and objects; the identification and analysis of stakeholder communities; principles and practices of Heritage Management in local, national and international contexts; conservation of archaeological and historical remains; site management and cultural tourism; and site interpretation and education programs. Students will engage in hands-on heritage activities and projects, such as planning an exhibit, developing a public outreach program, or assessing a management plan.  This course has an emphasis on archaeological sites, but it also extends to other areas such as historical sites and art centers. Therefore, it is open to students of art history, anthropology, classics, museum studies, and education. We will study how to prepare a site for tourism, how to design and implement programs for all kinds of publics—children, teenagers, mentally-handicapped, etc.— and how to reach the community and involve it in the task of preserving its cultural heritage. (Course fulfills department topical requirement.)

CAS AR590 Life is a Bowl, Ceramic Studies in Archaeology
Before plastic, there was pottery – pots and pans, cups and dishes, crocks and jars – in every culture and in abundance. In this course we’ll study how archaeologists use the evidence of pottery to elucidate everything from personal habits to large-scale social, economic, and political developments.The course will be divided into three study units. In the first we will focus on the most common forms of scientific analyses: mineral and clay identification via thin section and chemical composition via Instrumental Neutron Activation and X-Ray Fluorescence Analyses. In the second study unit, we will focus on the Levant over the longue durée, from the Bronze Ages through the Ottoman empire, and examine how archaeologists have analyzed and deployed ceramic evidence to reconstruct social, economic, cultural, and political processes. In the third study unit, we will broaden our geographical scope to study the application of ceramic analysis in the archaeologies of Oceania, Africa, the early Americas, and historic America.  (Course fulfills department technical or topical requirement.)

AR593 A1 Memory in 3-D:
Memorials, then and now
Societies craft their histories and identities via memorials, thereby firming up the past for the future. In this course, we analyze the historical context, form and message of important memorials in modern America and classical antiquity.

GRS AR699 Teaching College for Teaching Assistants
Restricted to only teaching assistants.

GRS AR701 Intellectual History of Archaeology
Prerequisite: graduate standing and at least two prior courses in sociocultural anthropology.
The historical development of archaeological methods and theory from the Renaissance to the present day, including consideration of major developments in Western Europe and the Americas, with comparative developments in other regions. Basic concepts in archaeological record and society.

GRS AR702 Contemporary Theory in Archaeology
Prerequisite: GRS AR701.  Explore aspects of contemporary theory in archaeology, including post-modern critiques of contemporary practice, new approaches to archaeology of ritual, personhood, identity, and the body; indigenous and public archaeology; politics and archaeology.

GRS AR703 Materials in Ancient Society
Seminar. Topic to be announced. Offered through the Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology.  (MIT Materials in Ancient Societies: course #3.984)

GRS AR704 Materials in Ancient Society
Seminar. Topic to be announced. Offered through the Center for Materials Research in Archaeology and Ethnology. (MIT Materials in Ancient Societies: course #3.989)

GRS AR705 Pre-Urban Development
Cultural development from the origins of humankind through the establishment of food production, with emphasis on models for reconstructing successive changes in adaptation among early populations.  (Program core course.  Offered in the Fall.)

GRS AR706 Archaeology of Complex Societies
Core concepts of archaeological research on the formation, cultural development, and decay of complex societies as well as their introduction into other cultures. Coverage emphasizes research design rather than simply survey.  (Program core course.  Offered in the Spring.)

GRS AR707 Scientific Applications in Archaeology
This seminar explores new ways of addressing archaeological questions through the application of scientific techniques, focusing on cutting-edge methodologies and the most recent literature in the field.  Students pursue questions of individual interest through readings, discussions, presentations, and research papers. (Program core course.  Offered in the Spring.)

GRS AR708 Processes in the Formation of Archaeological Sites
Considers in detail geological, biological and anthropogenic depositional and post-depositional processes that result in formation of archaeological sites. Initial focus on basic principles/processes, then their application to site-evaluation in New and Old World. Field trips in area.

GRS AR709 Research Methods in Geoarchaeology
This seminar deals with a variety of topics concerned with the earth and archaeological sciences. Such themes are related to quaternary environments; methods of studying archaeological sediments and materials; scientific methods in the study of archaeological sites.

GRS AR712 Seminar in Old World Prehistory
Selected problems or topics in prehistoric archaeology of the Old World.

GRS AR727 Archaeology and Colonialism
Theoretical and methodological approaches to the comparative archaeology of colonialism in ancient and early modern worlds; considers case studies from ancient Greece, Roman Empire, & European colonial projects in South Africa, Australia, and the Americas.

GRS AR730 Seminar: Old World Historical Archaeology
Selected problems or topics in historical archaeology of the Old World.

GRS AR731 Seminar: Greek Archaeology
Topics vary.

GRS AR734 Seminar: Archaeology of the Roman Provinces
Topics vary.

GRS AR735 Topics in the Materiality of Ancient Mediterranean Religions
Pre requisite: Prior coursework in Archaeology or in ancient religions (Classics/RN/Hist/STh), or permission of the instructor.  Investigates manifestations and contexts of religion in the Greco-Roman world, including iconographic, architectural, votive, magical, and archaeological remains, and drawing on theories of space, image, and ritual performance.   Individual topics will address historical periods or specific themes in religious materiality. Cross-listed with AR435, RN490, and RN790.

GRS AR741 Archaeology of Mesopotamia
Seminar. Studies this core area of the ancient Near East, from the introduction of agriculture to the Hellenistic era. Examines the genesis of the first urban society and its transformation under the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. Meets with CAS AR341

GRS AR742 Archaeology in the Holy Land
In Israel, archaeology is part of current events. We study remains from the Israelite to the Moslem conquests (c. 1200 BCE – 640 CE) to learn how material evidence created and still plays a role in a larger historical drama.  Meets with CAS AR342.  Cross lists with CAS RN390/690 & STH TX815.

GRS AR743 Anatolian Archaeology
A historically oriented survey of the material remains of the ancient cultures of Turkey and northwest Iran from the Neolithic to the Hellenistic period. Emphasis is on the Hittite Empire and civilizations that succeeded it in the first millennium. Meets with CAS AR343.

GRS AR746 Archaeology of Ancient Egypt
Seminar. Survey and analysis of sites from Egypt’s prehistory and the major periods of Pharaonic civilizations. Problems such as changing social and political organization, demography, and the economic system will be studied, as interpreted from the archaeological evidence.  Meets with CAS AR346.

GRS AR747 Egypt and Northeast Africa: Early States in Egypt, Nubia and Eritrea/Ethiopia
This course focuses on early states in northeast Africa, in Egypt, Nubia, and Eritrea/Ethiopia.  Comparative analyses include socio-economic institutions, kingship, burial practices and religions of these early states, concentrating on archaeological as well as textual evidence.  Meets with CAS AR347.

GRS AR751 Seminar: Mesoamerica Archaeology
It is a seminar on the archaeology of prehispanic Mesoamerica (much of modern Mexico and Central America), and is intended to provide students with an in depth understanding of major issues in studying the Mesoamerican past, with relative emphases changing by semester.

GRS AR770 New World Historical Archaeology: Colonial America
Seminar. Material culture of the people who colonized North America. Architecture, artifacts, and a variety of sites – domestic, military, commercial, sepulchral – are studied. Uses of archival evidence as factual and ethnographic documentation for archaeological interpretation are discussed.  Meets with CAS AR370.

GRS AR771 New World Historical Archaeology: Post-Colonial America
Seminar. The archaeological study of America since the Revolution. Focus is on the archaeological and artifactual evidence for the development of plantation systems and slavery, industrial and urban centers, ethnicity, and modern popular culture.  Meets with CAS AR371.

GRS AR772 Archaeology of Boston
Boston’s buried history revealed through excavated artifacts and features. Tours of archaeological laboratories, Boston’s neighborhoods, burying grounds, waterfront, and Harbor Islands. “Big Dig” finds in Charlestown, Mill Pond, North End; Fanueil Hall, Blackstone Block, Boston Common, and Paul Revere House.  Meets with CAS AR372.

GRS AR775 Oral History and Written Records in Archaeology
Comprehensive survey of use of oral and written documentary history by archaeologists. Specific topics, sources, techniques of recording and analysis. Special attention to archaeological applications of African and American oral history projects; case studies involving documentation in New World historical archaeology.  Meets with CAS AR375.

GRS AR780 Archaeological Ethics and the Law
In this course students examine archaeology and professional ethics; archaeology as a public interest; legal organization of archaeology; international approaches to heritage management; looting, collecting, and the antiquities market; maritime law and underwater archaeology; cultural resource management in the United States.  Meets with CAS AR480.  (Program core course.)

GRS AR782 Zooarchaeology
Introduction to archaeological analysis of animal bones. Provides a basis for the use of faunal remains in the investigation of paleoecology, analysis of archaeological site formation histories, and techniques for interpreting human subsistence activities.  Lecture and Lab.  Meets with CAS AR382.

GRS AR790 The Archaeology of Southeast Asia
Examines the prehistoric and historic cultures of Southeast Asia, including the first arrival of humans, regional neolithic and Bronze Age communities, early states, maritime trading networks, as well as political motivations in archaeology and the illicit Asian antiquities trade. Meets with AR390.

GRS AR793 Out of the Fiery Furnace: Metallurgy of the Asian World
Technology is a central part of the human experience, and the development of metallurgy stands out as one technology that was mastered by some cultures, and virtually ignored by others. This course explores all aspects of the development of copper, bronze, gold, silver, iron, and other metals among the prehistoric and early historic cultures across Asia. By first providing an understanding of the technical aspects of mining, smelting, casting, alloying, and finishing, the course then looks at this technology within a much broader context, examining its varied roles and impact in the ritual, military, symbolic, and economic aspects of these cultures. Its prominence in the modern antiquities trade is also examined, as is its manipulation as a potent tool in modern nationalistic debates. Open to all interested students in all departments.  Meets with CAS AR393.

GRS AR795 Politics, Nationalism, and Archaeology
Explores how archaeology is shaped by and manipulated for political purposes. Case studies from Asia and around the world trace the development of archaeology during colonial empire-building and post-colonial nationalism, and the importance of archaeological heritage in regional politics.

GRS AR796 Cultural Heritage and Diplomacy
Course considers place of heritage in archaeology and cultural diplomacy; art architecture as cultural ambassadors; culture representation in museums and cultural landscapes; international art law; cultural affairs in U.S. embassies; the State Department; strategic impact of heritage in promoting U.S. foreign policy.  Cross listed with IR396/796 meets with CAS AR396.

GRS AR800 Food-Gathering Societies
Seminar on prehistoric hunting-and-gathering societies from the Lower Paleolithic through the Mesolithic. Technology, subsistence patterns, demography, and human organization. Use of ethnographic analogy and environmental studies.

GRS AR802 Paleoethnobotany
Seminar. Introduces the method and theory of study of the uses of plants by humans derived from evidence present in the archaeological record, the relationship between humans and their environment, and the relationship between the environment and the archaeological record. Laboratory sessions concentrate on identification methods and project on archaeological material. Lecture and Lab.  Meets with CAS AR381.

GRS AR803 Quantitative Studies
Seminar. Prerequisite: CAS AR400 or consent of instructor. The application of quantitative methods to archaeological data covering techniques of exploratory data analysis, probability sampling, and techniques of spatial analysis with lectures on statistical methods.

GRS AR805 U.S. Archaeological Heritage Management
Introduction to the practice of public archaeology in the U.S. Historical and legal background; state and federal programs; conducting archaeological investigations; archaeology as a business; the public interest; controversies, problems, and prospects in archaeological heritage management.

GRS AR808 Survey and Landscape Archaeology
This seminar traces the development of survey and landscape archaeology and their impact on understandings of the social, political, economic, and religious environments of ancient cultures. Weekly discussions and presentations cover a sample of methodological and interpretive approaches.

GRS AR810 International Heritage Management
Investigations of issues in archaeological heritage management at the international level. Approaches, challenges, and solutions to problems in the identification, evaluation, conservation, management, and interpretation of archaeological resources. Focus on specific topics (e.g. legislation) and/or geographical regions.

GRS AR815 Plunder and Preservation: Cultural Heritage in Wartime
Topics include safeguarding of cultural sites, monuments, and objects during armed conflict; history of cultural seizures as spoils of war; destruction of cultural heritage in war; development of legal protections; contemporary approaches to preservation of heritage at risk from war.

GRS AR901/902 Directed Research in Classical Archaeology

GRS AR903/904 Directed Research in New World Historical Archaeology

GRS AR905/906 Directed Research in Old World Prehistoric Archaeology

GRS AR907/908 Directed Research in New World Prehistoric Archaeology

GRS AR910/911 Practicum in Archaeological Heritage Management
A full-time internship in an appropriate public or private firm, agency, or other organization involved in the practice of public archaeology.

GRS AR912 Dissertation Research in Archaeology

GRS AR913/914 Directed Research in Archaeological Heritage Management

GRS AR917/918 Directed Research in Geoarchaeology

GRS AR981/982 Certified Full Time Study
Student has not completed all course requirements for degree and is registered for less then 12 credits.

GRS AR983/984 Continued Study Part Time
Student has completed all course requirements for degree and is doing research, part time status.

GRS AR985/986 Continued Study Certified Full Time
Student has completed all course requirements for degree and is doing research.