Rehabilitation of reading and writing deficits

In two studies, we examined the nature of crossmodal generalization in patients with reading and writing deficits.

Treatment Methods for Aphasia

In the first study

A model-based treatment focused on improving grapheme to phoneme conversion as well asĀ  phoneme to grapheme conversion was implemented to train oral reading skills in two patients with severe oral reading and naming deficits. Initial assessment based on current cognitive neuropsychological models of nam

Treatment Methods for Aphasia 2ing indicated a deficit in the phonological output lexicon and in grapheme to phoneme conversion.

Using a single subject experimental design across subjects, the effects of treatment were evaluated by periodic probing of both trained and untrained regular words across lexical tasks: oral reading, oral naming, written naming, and writing to dictation. Results indicated successful acquisition of trained reading targets for both patients, as well as generalisation to untrained reading items, oral and written naming of trained items, and writing to dictation of trained and untrained items. Irregular words probed across the four lexical tasks did not demonstrate any improvement, as the trained grapheme to phoneme conversion skills were unsuccessful when applied to irregular words. The present experiment provides evidence for incorporating cognitive n

europsychological models in aiding the development of appropriate treatment protocols, and demonstrates the importance of rule-based learning, rather than compensatory strategies, in maximising the effects of generalisation.

In a second study:

Background: A previous study (Kiran, Thompson, & Hashimoto, 2001) investigated the effect of training sublexical conversion on improving oral reading of regular words in two individuals with aphasia. Results revealed that training grapheme to phoneme conversion improved acquisition of trained items and facilitated generalisation to trained and untrained stimuli during oral naming, written naming and writing to dictation as well.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to extend this work to investigate if training phoneme to grapheme conversion would result in improvement of writing to dictation of trained items and facilitate generalisation to untrained stimuli and untrained tasks.


Outcomes and Results:
Results indicated that training phoneme to grapheme conversion resulted in improved writing to dictation of trained and untrained words in two out of three patients. In addition, improved written naming and oral spelling of trained words was observed. Marginal improvements were observed for untrained stimuli on written naming, oral spelling and oral naming.

Treatment Methods for Aphasia 3

Methods and procedures: Using a single subject experimental design across three participants with aphasia, the effects of phoneme to grapheme conversion treatment were evaluated by periodic probing of both trained and untrained regular words across lexical tasks: writing to dictation, written naming, oral spelling, and oral naming.

Conclusions: The results of this experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of training sublexical conversion to improve written production deficits and to facilitate generalisation to untrained stimuli and untrained tasks. These results also complement findings of our previous study to suggest a more efficient method of improving single word production deficits than training each modality successively.

  

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