300 Level Courses
300 Level Courses
AN 305 Comparative Family Systems (Area)
A comparative examination of family, concentrating on marriage, reproduction, power, and relations with kin. Three Asian societies are treated: Japan, India, and the People’s Republic of China. Ethnographic materials are used, and lectures provide a theoretical focus. 4 cr. Cross-listed for minor in Women’s Studies.
AN 307 Turkey & Middle East Perspective (Area)
This course will examine the social and cultural diversity of Turkey, with some comparative reference to the Muslim Middle East, Asia and Europe. The focus will be on the interplay between tradition and social and economic change from the end of the nineteenth century to the present. Specific issues to be addressed include: rural and urban life; family structure and kinship; Islam as belief and practice; gender roles; ethnic, religious and national identities within the context of nationalism, colonialism, urbanization and migration. Later in the semester, a thorough understanding of the history and present complexities of Turkish social and political life will serve as a springboard for discussing such important contemporary issues as the coexistence of democracy and authoritarian politics; the role of women in political and economic affairs; the rise of political Islam; and, as a thread pulled through all of these issues, the cultural context of political and economic life. 4 cr.
AN 308 Food, Culture, and Society
Foodways, culinary history, personal, social and cultural identity and the experience of taste are the objects of inquiry in this course. Using perspectives drawn from anthropology, sociology, history and other disciplines, the course treats foods as both direct and emblematic foci for identity, national development, globalization and social change. Special attention will be given to communities in the Boston area as locations of cultural and culinary diversity and identity. In addition we will conduct fieldwork and engage in discussions with food professionals in the Boston area. See a BUToday video and article about AN308 here. 4 cr.
AN 310 Studies in North American Ethnography (Area)
Prereq: consent of instructor. A survey including an appreciation of the traditional background and heritage of native North Americans, an analysis of the history and contact with Europeans and governmental policies, and an examination and evaluation of the contemporary situation. 4 cr.
AN 312 Peoples and Cultures of Africa (Area)
This course provides an overview of the anthropology of Africa. No course can reasonably cover all the rich variety of Africa’s peoples and cultures, but in this course we look into settings and civilizations representing a range of cultures, languages, religious traditions, and living conditions. Readings include ethnographies, histories, novels, and firsthand life stories.
We will learn about the various sub-regions of the continent, gain a foundational understanding of the watershed moments in Africa’s precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial history, and delve into various themes related to the cultures of African peoples. Major topics include: the impact of colonialism, social organization and gender, systems of thought and religion, postcoloniality and social change, African environments, and the cultural politics of the national-state. This course provides students with an appreciation for the diversity of African cultures and an understanding of some of the key insights from Africanist anthropology. 4 cr.
AN 314 Cultures of Latin America (Area)
This course takes a problem-solving approach to the study of Latin America. Although it will not cover every country within the region, it will focus on the key debates that have motivated anthropologists who conduct fieldwork in Latin America. Through readings, discussions, and independent research, students who successfully complete the course will be able to assess and respond to journalistic accounts of Latin America, analyze the relationship between the United States and its neighbors, and identify new areas for scholarly investigation 4 cr.
AN 316 Contemporary European Ethnography (Area)
Approaches Europe and European societies through an exploration of significant social shifts: the creation of the European Union, the decline of the national welfare state, the rise of regionalist movements, and the sociopolitical transformation of post-socialist states. 4 cr.
AN 317 Power and Society in the Middle East (Area)
This course will consider the ways in which power and authority are expressed and reproduced in the Middle East within a wide range of social and political settings. We will begin by outlining the underlying principles and tensions of Middle Eastern history and social organization, then move to a discussion of the ways in which these principles and tensions are expressed in religious, communal, gender and political relationships. We also will consider the effects of the media and global market on authority and power relations within these settings.4 cr.
AN 318 Southeast Asia: Tradition and Development (Area)
Southeast Asia is familiar to many Americans through the experience of the Vietnam War and, more recently, the “war on terror.” The region’s cultures and history have a richness and importance, however, greater than the difficult American involvement. Home to the “spice islands” for which European explorers set out in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Southeast Asia has long been a nexus in the economic trade and cultural exchange linking India and China. Home to large populations of Buddhists and Christians and more Muslims than the entire Middle East, the region is often referred to as a civilizational “crossroads” shaped in dialogue with Asian, Middle Eastern, and Western cultures. Today Southeast Asia remains one of the most fascinating and complex of regions in the world. Despite its diversity, it retains a unity that distinguishes it from its more famous neighbors to the west (India) and northeast (China and Japan). Home to some of the more rapidly industrializing capitalist economies in the world, Southeast Asian provides a powerful illustration of tradition and modernity in national development.
This course is intended to provide an in-depth introduction to the cultural traditions and contemporary change of Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, East Timor, and the Philippines). We examine the region’s society and culture through the optic of political and cultural history, so as to understand the “integrative revolutions” that have shaped this region from earliest times to today. Our exploration addresses several critical questions — the nature of the premodern state; colonialism and the “rise of the West”; the politics and culture of modern nation-states; Islam, Buddhism, and the challenge of modernity; capitalism and the new Asian industrialization, the impact of modern development on families and gender relations; and the contemporary dynamics of democratization and civil society. Our effort to understand this rich, fascinating region sheds light not only on Southeast Asia but on the broader forces reshaping the entire late modern world. 4 cr.
AN 319 Anthropology of Muslim Cultures and Politics (Area)
Muslims account for well over one billion of the world’s population, occupying diverse geographical landscapes – from Morocco in Northwest Africa to Indonesia in Southeast Asia and everywhere in between. Yet our image of Islam and Muslims is primarily framed by the action of small but violent groups of rag tag individuals whose voices and actions have been, by and large, privileged by the 24 hour Western media as representative of all Muslims. Who are Muslims? In the late 7th century, as the message of Islam spread out in every direction from its cradle the Arabian Peninsula, many neighboring societies were brought under the banner of Islam, by force or by choice. In the course of the history of the development of Islamic civilization, not only did Islam take the cultural coloring of the conquered societies but was also fractured into various branches and denominations, much like Christianity.
In this course we want to historicize Islam as a religion and to situate Muslims in the contexts of their own cultural traditions. We frame the course within two broad and overlapping categories: one historical and the other anthropological. Anthropology helps us explain cultural traditions and understand peoples and their worldviews from their own perspectives. History teaches us to understand peoples and cultures within the context of their local development and genealogy, as well as in relation to the global patterns of domination and power.
Concentrating on some contemporary Muslim societies, we divide the course into three parts. In Part I we problematize the dominant understanding of “tradition” as being “unchanging and static,” and “modernity” as being dynamic, unidirectional and monolithic. Instead, we consider “multiple modernities” as a more apt Muslim response to modernity. In Part II we read ethnographies, biographies and autobiographies about and from the Muslim world in order to get a sense about the diversity of Muslim cultures and the internal Muslims’ struggle over institutional forms, cultural meaning, religious authority, gender relations, and notions of citizenship, civil society and democracy. We devote Part III to literature, poetry, films, music and Muslim comedians! 4 cr.
AN 320 Women in the Muslim World
This course aims to provide a broad framework for exploring, examining and understanding the diversity and complexity of women’s roles, positions, activities and experiences in the vast Muslim world, including that of Muslims in the United States. We take a cross-cultural approach to the study of women and gender and incorporate textual, historical and ethnographic sources to explore differences and similarities among and between women in the Muslim world. We emphasize gender analysis as a way to explore structural inequalities, power asymmetries and patterns of inclusion and exclusion in the realms of law, religion, and politics.
Concentrating on four contemporary Muslim societies, we divide the course into three parts. We begin the course, in Part I, by reading and examining religious texts and historical sources on their treatment of the role and status of “Muslim women.” In Part II we read select biographies, autobiographies, memoirs by Muslim women that position their lives within the socio-historical context of their societies. Here we focus on the day to day experiences of women regarding marriage and divorce, veiling and sex segregation, sexual politics, education and human rights, professional opportunities and struggles, demand for gender parity, democracy and civil society. We devote Part III to exploring other dimensions of Muslim women’s lives, namely the literature, poetry, films, music and fashion (veiling and fashion?!).
The literature is vast, varied, interesting, informative, and is growing, which makes the process of course selection exciting and taxing at the same time. A non-exhaustive bibliography is provided at the end of this syllabus, and more shall be provided later in the course of the semester.
Women from the Middle East and other parts of the Muslim world have made compelling feature films and documentaries that reflect and represent conformity and conflict in various aspects of women’s and family life in Muslim societies. We would use films as visual representations of life and experiences of Muslim women from different classes, ethnic and cultural backgrounds to initiate debates and discussions regarding the images and realities of Muslim women’s lives. Other than those films watched in class, several other films are put on reserve. 4 cr. Cross-listed for minor in Women’s Studies.
AN 321 Cognition and Culture
Investigation of the relationship of cognition and culture, focusing on the problem of evolution and mind, public acts and private thought, the “primitive mentality” debate, socialization theory, cultural aspects of mental illness, and the role of innate vs. cultural variables in shaping cognition. 4 cr.
AN 325 Hinduism, Globalization and World Politics
Prereq: consent of instructor. Using the example of Hinduism in India and overseas Indian communities, the course will examine current debates on globalism, religion, transnationalism, and fundamentalism with an emphasis on cultural, social, and political changes. 4 cr.
AN 326 Oral Traditions as Verbal Art
Prereq: CAS AN 101 or consent of instructor. Exploration of religious and secular poetry worldwide with emphasis on the ethnography of communication. A focus on performance in oral tradition and its consequences for literary form, as well as the impact of mass media and literacy on orality. 4 cr.
AN 331 Human Origins
Prereq: CAS AN 102; or CAS AR 101 and CAS BI 107 or equivalent. Introduction to human paleontology and methods for reconstructing the ancestry, structure, diet, and behavior of fossil primates and humans. Survey of primate and hominid fossils, primate comparative anatomy, radioactive dating, molecular and structural phylogenies, climatic analyses, and comparative behavioral ecology. 4 cr.
AN 333 Human Population Biology
Prereq: CAS AN 102; or CAS BI 107 and either BI 119, BI 211, or BI 303; or consent of instructor. Human population biology and ecological adaptations: human demography, life history patterns, population genetics, and physiological adaptability. Topics: population dynamics of human societies, mortality and fertility schedules, evolution and genetics of human life history traits, physiological adaptability, and ecological correlates. 4 cr.
AN 334 Evolutionary Psychology
Prereq: CAS AN 102; or CAS BI 107 and either CAS BI 119 or CAS BI 303. Critical analysis of human behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasis placed on viewing humans as products of biological evolution. Topics include: evolution of language and intelligence, cultural evolution, sex and reproduction, kinship and family dynamics, cooperation, aggression, warfare, and status. 4 cr.
AN 335 Apes and the Evolution of Human Behavior
Prereq: AN 102 and BI 119 or BI 107; or consent of instructor. The goal of this course is to discover how behavior evolves in cognitively complex species, and to explore the significance of similarities in behavior between humans and other living primates. We will consider a variety of living primates, in order to (1) illustrate rules of behavior and (2) represent the kinds of behavior that might have occurred in human ancestry. However, the focus will be on our closest living relatives: gorillas, orangutans, bonobos and chimpanzees. Much of what we know about human evolution comes from the study of fossil ancestors. In this course, however, we will examine what ongoing ape field studies can tell us about human evolution, and human uniqueness. By the end of the term you should have a better appreciation of how behavior evolves, and what kind of primate you are. Topics will include diet, social relationships, sexual behavior, aggression, culture, and cognition.
AN 336 Primate Evolutionary Ecology
Prereq: AN 102. This course covers the various theoretical approaches to understanding the evolutionary ecology of wild primates. Topics to be covered include functional anatomy, genetic approaches to mating systems, demography, behavioral ecology, community ecology, and conservation. 4 cr.
AN 337 Creation and Evolution
A critical survey of the creation/evolution controversy in its historical, scientific, philosophical, and theological contexts—from ancient Babylon down to the intelligent-design movement. 4 cr.
AN 338 Lucy and Ardi: The Oldest Women
The 3.2 million year (myr) old fossil skeleton “Lucy” discovered in 1974 remains one of the most complete and most important specimens in the human fossil record. A new discovery, “Ardi”, a 4.4 myr old fossil also from Ethiopia has joined Lucy in providing an important window into our evolutionary history. In this course, students will intimately learn about these specific individuals “Lucy” and “Ardi”. Students will study casts of Lucy and other hominids to understand the very nature of science and learn how paleoanthropologists come to know what they think they know about human origins and human evolution. How did “Ardi” and “Lucy” move, and how do we know? What did they eat? Could they talk? Were they furry? Did they give birth? The Boston University Anthropology Department currently has two teaching casts of Lucy, and these will be employed as you come to know and understand the significance of every curve, crack, and groove of the hominid skeleton called Lucy, and how she compares to her older ancestor “Ardi”. 4 cr.
AN 339 Primate Biomechanics
This course is an introduction to the physical principles and anatomies underlying primate behavior, with a particular emphasis on locomotion in general and human locomotion in particular. We will study mechanics, bone biology, skeletal anatomy, and the primate fossil record in order to address why bones are shaped the way they are and how we can reconstruct behavior from fossils. We will spend a week studying human running adaptations in preparation for the Boston marathon. Students will also have an opportunity to use state-of-the-art plantar-pressure-sensing equipment to study variation in modern human foot function.
Students are expected to have a background in evolutionary biology and a basic understanding of human anatomy and evolution. These expectations will ordinarily be met by having taken Anthropology 102 or Biology 107. If you lack this background, you should confer with Prof. DeSilva or Prof. Cartmill to receive permission to continue. 4 cr.
AN 340 Folk Songs as Social History
Prereq: sophomore standing or consent of instructor. Anglo-American folk songs and singing styles considered as expressions of personal, social, and cultural history. Topics include finding and using regional and thematic song collections; performance of traditional music; preparation and presentation of song materials in selected projects. 4 cr.
AN 344 Modern Japanese Society: Family, School, and Workplace (Area)
Modern is not the same thing as Western …
The course will approach contemporary Japanese society through an examination of ideology, culture and social institutions such as family, school and workplace. The lectures and readings will explore how these institutions have evolved since 1868, the beginning of what is considered “modern Japan.” We will look at the strengths and failures of these institutions in terms of expectations and fulfillment – considering the lives of elderly and those who fall outside the system. In addition, this course treats urbanism, consumption and popular culture and the effects of “globalization” in material culture. 4 cr. Cross-listed for minor in Women’s Studies.
AN 345 Moving Experiences: Cultures of Tourism and Travel
Prereq: CAS AN 101.The movement of people across national boundaries is a cultural, economic and political phenomenon. In this course, we will examine voluntary border-crossing in its various cultural and historical meanings as well as in the representations of journals and contemporary accounts. By reading primary source material on the experiences of travel, and by using models drawn from the scholarly literature on “border-crossing,” we will apply anthropological analysis to a common, but understudied phenomenon. Field trips in the Boston area will supplement our readings and discussions, allowing students to examine tourism as observers and participants, in tourist destinations as well as in museums whose collections represent cross-cultural observation and experience. 4 cr.
AN 347 Afghanistan
This course provides an ethnographic and historical examination of Afghanistan’s traditional social organization, ecology and economy, political organization, and relationship among ethnic groups as a basis for examining the consequences of domestic political turmoil and foreign interventions over the last thirty years. The current situation in Afghanistan and the country’s prospects for the future will also be addressed. 4 cr.
Professor Barfield is a social anthropologist who conducted extensive ethnographic fieldwork in northern Afghanistan in the mid 1970s and author of The Central Asian Arabs of Afghanistan (1981) and Afghanistan: An Atlas of Indigenous Domestic Architecture (1991). He is President of the American Institute for Afghanistan Studies. His recent book, Changing Concepts of Political Legitimacy in Afghanistan and their Consequences, has been read extensively in Washington by political and military leaders. See him lecture on the topic here.
AN 348 Investigating Contemporary Globalization
Globalization, in a very general sense, refers to the increasingly interconnected world in which we live today. In this course we examine various global processes that create this more interconnected world, including the greater movement of peoples, ideas, goods and capital across cultural and national borders; new communication technologies; a growing international division of labor; and increased attention to issues such as universal human rights and the experiences of women in the global era. Key debates we investigate include the question of whether these processes produce global cultural homogenization or greater cultural diversity and whether globalization reproduces power dynamics or allows for new freedoms, opportunities or a break with familiar relationships of power. Topics include the impact of global capitalism on indigenous communities; transnational migration and diasporas; global forms of popular culture and consumerism; and the relationship between novel forms of communication such as Facebook, email and text messaging and changing social and cultural norms.
Methodological concerns in Anthropology are also addressed, as globalization has uprooted some of the familiar mainstays of the discipline, challenging anthropologists to reconsider the geographical “boundaries” of culture and to find new approaches to fieldwork. Our class discussions investigate these challenges as we respond to a variety of topics and undertake creative research projects. In this regard, students are asked to do their own data and evidence collection on various writing topics and to develop arguments about how their data speaks to relevant theories and writings presented throughout the term.
Course readings include: an ethnography on “mail-order” brides and the ways that new communication technologies have transformed romance and social lives; a social history of sugar production and consumption; an ethnography of McDonald’s restaurants in East Asia and a book investigating Dominican “transnational villagers.” These readings are supplemented by key theory-oriented articles and essays and films that offer stimulating visual investigations into processes of globalization. 4 cr.
AN 350 Asians in America (Area)
A cultural history of Asian immigrants in the United States from the 1850s to the present, focusing on family structure, gender, generational differences, religion, and education. The implications of the Asian experience for understanding mainstream American culture. 4 cr.
AN 351 Language, Culture, and Society
This course is an introduction to the basic concepts, approaches, and perspectives of linguistic anthropology. We will examine the ways that language both reflects and shapes thought, culture, and relations of power. Students will learn how to apply linguistic concepts to their everyday experience with language. This is an introductory course which requires no background. It will include a brief introduction to linguistic structure (i.e., phonology, morphology & syntax) which will serve as a foundation for readings and lectures. Over the course of the semester particular emphasis will be placed on three topical areas: the linguistic performance of youth identities (slang); language and the performance of gender; and language, ethnicity, and race. Students will conduct several linguistic observations and analyze a conversational/communicative event. 4cr.
AN 355 Religious Fundamentalism in Anthropological Perspective
Anthropological study of the global phenomenon of religious fundamentalism. A product of the modern world, fundamentalism is perceived as countercultural and anti-nationalist. Cases drawn from North America and Islamic Middle East, with special attention to women’s interpretation of religion. 4 cr.
AN 360 The Nomadic Alternative
Ethnographic and historical examination of nomads in Africa and Eurasia focusing on the ecology of pastoralism, nomadic social organization, political relations between nomads and states, the rise and fall of steppe empires, and the future of nomads. 4 cr.
AN 362 Culture and Environment
Examines how the social construction of environment, nature, and culture varies cross-culturally and historically, as well as how it influences economic change, environmental movements, nature tourism, and public policy. Primary examples include India, China, Native American cultures, and the West. 4 cr.
AN 363 Food and Water: Critical Perspectives on Global Crises
International experts and media reports in the past few years are warning of an age of “food and water wars,” based on the unforeseen and unprecedented decline in the world food supply, as well as increasing conflicts over access to potable water. This course takes seriously the problems of food and water shortages, while broadening our lens to explore the multiple causes and consequences of such trends. We will examine how people in different parts of the world, past and present, have interacted with food and water. We will look at the production, consumption, distribution, and politics of food; and we will learn about a range of water management systems – and the politics and symbolism of water – in different parts of the world.
Food and water offer intriguing ways to look at a range of related topics: ecological history, class and caste, gender, poverty, science and technology, ethnicity, nationalism, development, and global capitalism. Food and water are at once the most obvious and among the least explored windows into the shaping of identities, desires, needs, and rights in the contemporary world. 4 cr.
AN 371 Political Anthropology of the Modern World
Examines the concepts of political anthropology and applies them to the analysis of the origins and development of the modern political world. Special attention to nations and nationalism, the state and modern development, comparative political culture, and urban and agrarian political change. 4 cr.
AN 372 Psychological Anthropology
Introduces students to some key theoretical perspectives and controversies in the cross-cultural study of psychology. The reading is of classic texts and cross-cultural studies of emotion, sexuality, concepts of the person, national character, consciousness, authority, and religion. 4 cr.
AN 375 Culture, Society, and Religion in South Asia (Area)
This course will provide the student with the opportunity to study the South Asian (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka) cultural region in all of its rich complexity from an ethnographic perspective. Drawing from the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, religious studies, and ethnohistory, the course will begin with an exploration of South Asia’s prehistory and history. After a survey of the region’s historical development, specific topics dealing with a variety of sociocultural and religious phenomena will be explored from an interdisciplinary perspective. Topics for discussion will include social structure and kinship, gender, geography, linguistic diversity, ethnicity, religions and ritual practices, agricultural patterns, economics and politics, folklore and popular culture, as well as colonialism and current events such as nationalistic movements, religious extremism, and communal violence. The aim of the course is to provide a descriptive basis and interpretive framework for understanding the diverse cultural and religious landscape of South Asia as a distinct and important region of the world. The course will provide the necessary background for more advanced training and research in the area. 4 cr.
AN 379 China: Tradition and Transition (Area)
This course examines the dramatic changes that have occurred in China and Taiwan in the last seventy years from the viewpoint of the people who lived through those changes. We will look at how the People’s Republic of China transformed its economy to socialism, at the current market reforms, and at their implications for daily life and work. We will contrast their economy with Taiwan’s capitalist model. The course then turns to the evolution of the different authoritarian political systems in both places, and to Taiwan’s transition to democracy and China’s prospects for democracy, including issues of personal and intellectual freedom. We will examine family life, concentrating especially on the position of women and on the effects of China’s population policy. Finally, we will discuss China’s rich religious traditions as they have changed under both socialism and capitalism. 4 cr.
AN 382 Wealth, Poverty, and Culture
Explores vital cultural dimensions of production, exchange, and consumption in varied settings. Asks how social ties relate to property, wealth, and poverty. Examines how people classify, control, and allocate resources, and how resources in turn influence people. 4 cr.
AN 384 Anthropological Study of Religion
Religion is central to being human. Since anthropology is the study of human beings and their sociocultural practices, religion must be a phenomenon studied by students of culture. This course will provide an opportunity to study the various ways that anthropologists theorize religion. We will look at the development of anthropological thought about religion by way of an historical survey of some of the main theories generated by key figures in the discipline. In addition, we will explore theorists outside of the discipline who have been influential in the study of religion. The survey will end at mid-semester, after which you will be tested on that material. During the second half of the course we will read and critically discuss case studies in the anthropology of religion, which will transport us from Indonesia to India and Pakistan, then to the New World.
The object of the course is to arrive at a better understanding not only of the types of religious expression found in various cultures throughout the world, but something of the fundamental nature of a religious worldview and the manner in which mankind may be spoken of as homo religiosus, religious beings. 4 cr.
AN 397 Anthropological Film and Photography
“How do we know what we know?” “Is what we see what we get?” Visual anthropology and ethnographic film developed from this quest for knowledge of other cultures through visual representation. The near immediacy of cinematic representation facilitates a vivid appreciation of different peoples’ traditions, rituals and ways of life. But whether ethnographic film as a medium of representation should be scientific or aesthetic has been debated and discarded. Ideally, however, ethnographic films aim to unite the art and skills of the filmmaker with the trained intellect and insights of the ethnographer. By way of films and documentaries about and from selected societies (Senegal, Kenya, Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan), in this course, we problematize the evolution of our observational knowledge and visual understanding of other cultures’ practices and peoples’ behavior. We do so by historicizing the invention of the medium and its subsequent impact on Anthropological endeavors. Like many others, Anthropologists were initially fascinated with the technology and assumed that it could provide an unimpeachable witness to the “truth” of human behavior. They also did not seem to account for a film maker’s political, ideological and cultural background that may influence those who are being filmed. Gradually, however, Anthropologists became aware of the cultural baggage that may influence one’s observations of other cultures, and so they learned to approach ethnographic films in a reflexive manner, i.e. making it clear that their intention is not to make the viewers believe that what they see is the objective truth.
Framing the course within the broader discourse of modernization, and representation of culture and gender in the societies mentioned above, we divide the course into two parts. In Part I we focus on the history of the development of visual anthropology and select filmic production of a few pioneer anthropologists and their attempt at innovative cultural representation of the “other.” Part II concentrates on documentaries and films made about or by anthropologists and film makers from the selected six societies, contextualizing them within the growing reflexivity regarding the natives’ and women’s agency and perspectives. We explore social conflicts, cultural representations, gender perspectives, power relations, authorship, and spectatorship. Throughout the course, however, we keep in mind the revolutionary evolution in visual technology and the explosion of visual production in the 21st century, and the drastic changes in our approaches to and relationship with the medium and the message. 4 cr.