About the First Intermediate Period

and the XI DYNASTY

The VIIth and VIIIth dynasties were ephemeral and exercised little to no control over Egypt let alone the area around Memphis. The founder of the IX Dynasty, a nomarch of Herakleopolois named Khety, united Upper Egypt. About one hundred years later a new energetic dynasty in Thebes declared its independence from the contemporary X Dynasty. The XI Dynasty eventually united Upper and Lower Egypt. One king of this Dynasty, Neb-hepet-Ra Montu-hotep, built a mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri and according to inscriptions from Gebelein had successful campaigns against the Nubian, Libyans and Asiatics (probably nomadic tribes of the Eastern Delta). From the paucity of evidence in the First Intermediate Period, there is little evidence of contact with Asia except perhaps at Byblos and with the nomadic tribes in the Sinai and eastern Delta. It may be that even the campaign of Montu-hotep did not extend beyond the Delta and Sinai Regions. The 11th Dynasty ended shortly after Montu-hotep's reign. We suspect that Amenemhat, the founder of the 12th Egyptian Dynasty, was the vizier of the last king of the 11th Dynasty.