The VIIth and VIIIth dynasties were ephemeral and exercised little to no control over Egypt let alone the area around Memphis. The founder of the IX Dynasty, a nomarch of Herakleopolois named Khety, united Upper Egypt. About one hundred years later a new energetic dynasty in Thebes declared its independence from the contemporary X Dynasty. The XI Dynasty eventually united Upper and Lower Egypt. One king of this Dynasty, Neb-hepet-Ra Montu-hotep, built a mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri and according to inscriptions from Gebelein had successful campaigns against the Nubian, Libyans and Asiatics (probably nomadic tribes of the Eastern Delta). From the paucity of evidence in the First Intermediate Period, there is little evidence of contact with Asia except perhaps at Byblos and with the nomadic tribes in the Sinai and eastern Delta. It may be that even the campaign of Montu-hotep did not extend beyond the Delta and Sinai Regions. The 11th Dynasty ended shortly after Montu-hotep's reign. We suspect that Amenemhat, the founder of the 12th Egyptian Dynasty, was the vizier of the last king of the 11th Dynasty.
IN-yotef, son of Ikui, (sometimes identified as Intef) lived around 2200 B.C.E. From a hall of ancestors (Thothmosis III) we know his title as "Count and Herditary Prince." Mariette found a nomarch stela at Drab Abu Neggah: "the Herditary Price, Count of the Great Lord of the Theban Nome .... Inyotefi." A stela from Denderach lists him as: "The Great Prince of the South, Inyotef." This Inyotef may have led a successful rebellion from the north to establish his independence.
In-yotef known as Seher-Towi In-yotef (about 2130 B.C.E.) declared himself King of Upper Egypt. His tomb with royal cartouche is located in Thebes.
In-yotef known as Wah-'ankh In-yotef (about 2130-2081 B.C.E.) captured the nome of Abydos. His border reportedly was from Elephantine (Aswan) in the South to Aphroditopolis just north of Abydos. Little archaeological remains are preserved of this In-yotef other than a stela found be Mariette.
In-yotef known as Nakht-Neb-tep-nufe In-yotef ruled a short time (about 2181-79 B.C.E.) All that is preserved is a door jamb with royal cartouche found found at Abydos.
Neb-hepet-Ra Montu-hotep unites all Egypt. Built an mortuary temple (terrace style) at Deir el-Bahri. For further details on this important site see these publications or visit the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
Naville, E. & Hall, H.R. The XIth Dynasty Temple of Deir
el-Bahri. London, 1907-1913.
Winlock, H.E. The Rise of the Middle Kingdom., pp. 3-90.
Winlock, H.E. Excavations at Deir el-Bahri. New York, 1942.
Naville's excavation cleared the 11th Dynasty mortuary Temple of this king. Later the Metropolitan Museum under Winlock's leadership explored this Temple and the number of 11th Dynasty tombs in the region. Important discoveries include the Tomb of Meket-Ra with his exquisite house models (Excavations., pp.17-30), the Tomb of Wah with its linen and jewelry (Excavations., pp. 30, 222-228), the Tomb of Queen Neferu (Excavations., pp. 84-87, 101-104), the Tombs of the princesses (Excavations., pp. 33-46).
Se-'ankh-ka-Ra Montu-hotep was the last king of this Dynasty. Fragments of his building activities found throughout Upper Egypt.
There appears to have been seven kingless years before the beginning of the 12th Dynasty. This includes a third monarch Neb-towi-Ra Montu-hotep whose vizer, Amunemhat (Ammenemes I), was founder of the XII Egyptian Dynasty.