ALTARS

Exod 20:24-26 'An altar of earth you shall make for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen; in every place where I cause my name to be remembered I will come to you and bless you. And if you make me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stones; for if you wield your tool upon it you profane it. And you shall not go up by steps to my altar, that your nakedness be not exposed on it.

Deut 27:5 And there you shall build an altar to the LORD your God, an altar of stones; you shall lift up no iron tool upon them.

2Kgs 16:10 When King Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tig'lath-pile'ser king of Assyria, he saw the altar that was at Damascus. And King Ahaz sent to Uri'ah the priest a model of the altar, and its pattern, exact in all its details.

2Kgs 18:4 He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Ashe'rah. And he broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had burned incense to it; it was called Nehush'tan.

2Kgs 23:5 And he deposed the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places at the cities of Judah and round about Jerusalem; those also who burned incense to Ba'al, to the sun, and the moon, and the constellations, and all the host of the heavens.

2Kgs 11:18 (=2Chr 23:17) Then all the people went to the house of Ba'al, and tore it down; his altars and his images they broke in pieces, and they slew Mattan the priest of Ba'al before the altars.

2Kgs 21:3 (=2Chr 33:3) For he rebuilt the high places which Hezeki'ah his father had destroyed; and he erected altars for Ba'al, and made an Ashe'rah, as Ahab king of Israel had done, and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served them.

2Chr 34:4 And they broke down the altars of the Ba'als in his presence; and he hewed down the incense altars which stood above them; and he broke in pieces the Ashe'rim and the graven and the molten images, and he made dust of them and strewed it over the graves of those who had sacrificed to them.

Jer 11:13 For your gods have become as many as your cities, O Judah; and as many as the streets of Jerusalem are the altars you have set up to shame, altars to burn incense to Ba'al.

CANAANITES

Gen 10:19
And the territory of the Canaanites extended from Sidon, in the 
direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza, and in the direction of Sodom,
Gomor'rah, Admah, and Zeboi'im, as far as Lasha.

Exod 3:8
and I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians,
and to bring them up out of that land to a good and broad land, a land
flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanites, the
Hittites, the Amorites, the Per'izzites, the Hivites, and the 
Jeb'usites. 

Exod 3:17
and I promise that I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt,
to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the
Per'izzites, the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites, a land flowing with milk
and honey."'

Exod 13:5
And when the LORD brings you into the land of the Canaanites, the 
Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites, which he swore 
to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you
shall keep this service in this month.

Exod 23:23
@"When my angel goes before you, and brings you in to the Amorites, 
and the Hittites, and the Per'izzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, 
and the Jeb'usites, and I blot them out,

Exod 33:2
And I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the 
Canaanites, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Per'izzites, the Hivites, 
and the Jeb'usites. 

Exod 34:11
@"Observe what I command you this day. Behold, I will drive out before
you the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Per'izzites, the
Hivites, and the Jeb'usites.

Deut 7:1
"When the LORD your God brings you into the land which you are 
entering to take possession of it, and clears away many nations before
you, the Hittites, the Gir'gashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the
Per'izzites, the Hivites, and the Jeb'usites, seven nations greater and 
mightier than yourselves, 

Num 13:29
The Amal'ekites dwell in the land of the Negeb; the Hittites, the 
Jeb'usites, and the Amorites dwell in the hill country; and the 
Canaanites dwell by the sea, and along the Jordan." 


2Sam 24:7
and came to the fortress of Tyre and to all the cities of the Hivites 
and Canaanites; and they went out to the Negeb of Judah at Beer-sheba.

1Kgs 9:16
(Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up and captured Gezer and burnt it with 
fire, and had slain the Canaanites who dwelt in the city, and had given 
it as dowry to his daughter, Solomon's wife;

Ezra 9:1
After these things had been done, the officials approached me and
said, "The people of Israel and the priests and the Levites have not
separated themselves from the peoples of the lands with their 
abominations, from the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Per'izzites, the 
Jeb'usites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the 
Amorites. 

4Ezra 1:21
I divided fertile lands among you; I drove out the Canaanites, the
Perizzites, and the Philistines before you. What more can I do for you? 
says the Lord.

Jdt 5:16
And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and
the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived 
there a long time.


CULT OF BAAL

Judg 6:25-32 That night the LORD said to him, "Take your father's bull, the second bull seven years old, and pull down the altar of Ba'al which your father has, and cut down the Ashe'rah that is beside it; Then build an altar of the proper pattern to the Lord your God on the top of this earthwork; take the yearling bull and the offer it as a whole-offering with the wood of the sacred pole that you cut down.' So Gibeon took ten of his servants and did as the Lord had told him. He was afraid of his father's family and his fellow-citizens and so he did it by night, and not by day. When the men of the town rose early in the morning, behold, the altar of Ba'al was broken down, and the Ashe'rah beside it was cut down, and the second bull was offered upon the altar which had been built. Then the men of the town said to Jo'ash, "Bring out your son, that he may die, for he has pulled down the altar of Ba'al and cut down the Ashe'rah beside it." But Jo'ash said to all who were arrayed against him, "Will you contend for Ba'al? Or will you defend his cause? Whoever contends for him shall be put to death by morning. If he is a god, let him contend for himself, because his altar has been pulled down." Therefore on that day he was called Jerubba'al, that is to say, "Let Ba'al contend against him," because he pulled down his altar.

Judg 8:33 As soon as Gideon died, the people of Israel turned again and played the harlot after the Ba'als, and made Ba'al-be'rith their god.

1Kgs 18:19 Now therefore send and gather all Israel to me at Mount Carmel, and the four hundred and fifty prophets of Ba'al and the four hundred prophets of Ashe'rah, who eat at Jez'ebel's table."

1Kgs 18:25-29 Then Eli'jah said to the prophets of Ba'al, "Choose for yourselves one bull and prepare it first, for you are many; and call on the name of your god, but put no fire to it." And they took the bull which was given them, and they prepared it, and called on the name of Ba'al from morning until noon, saying, "O Ba'al, answer us!" But there was no voice, and no one answered. And they danced about the altar which they had made. At midday Elijah mocked them: 'Call louder, for he is a god; it may be he is deep in thought, or engaged, or on a journey; or he may have gone to sleep and must be woken up.' They cried still louder and, as was their custom, gashed themselves with swoards and spears until the blood ran. All afternoon they raved and ranted till the hour of the regular sacrifice, but still there was no sound, no answer, no sign of attention.

1Kgs 19:18 Yet I will leave seven thousand in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Ba'al, and every mouth that has not kissed him."

2Kgs 1:2 Now Ahazi'ah fell through the lattice in his upper chamber in Sama'ria, and lay sick; so he sent messengers, telling them, "Go, inquire of Ba'al-ze'bub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover from this sickness."

2Kgs 3:2 He did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, though not like his father and mother, for he put away the pillar of Ba'al which his father had made.

2Kgs 17:16 And they forsook all the commandments of the LORD their God, and made for themselves molten images of two calves; and they made an Ashe'rah, and worshiped all the host of heaven, and served Ba'al.

2Chr 28:2 but walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He even made molten images for the Ba'als;

Hos 2:8 And she did not know that it was I who gave her the grain, the wine, and the oil, and who lavished upon her silver and gold which they used for Ba'al.

Hos 2:13 And I will punish her for the feast days of the Ba'als when she burned incense to them and decked herself with her ring and jewelry, and went after her lovers, and forgot me, says the LORD.

Hos 11:2 The more I called them, the more they went from me; they kept sacrificing to the Ba'als, and burning incense to idols.

Jer 11:13 For your gods have become as many as your cities, O Judah; and as many as the streets of Jerusalem are the altars you have set up to shame, altars to burn incense to Ba'al.

Jer 11:17 The LORD of hosts, who planted you, has pronounced evil against you, because of the evil which the house of Israel and the house of Judah have done, provoking me to anger by burning incense to Ba'al."

Jer 19:5 and have built the high places of Ba'al to burn their sons in the fire as burnt offerings to Ba'al, which I did not command or decree, nor did it come into my mind;

Jer 32:29 The Chalde'ans who are fighting against this city shall come and set this city on fire, and burn it, with the houses on whose roofs incense has been offered to Ba'al and drink offerings have been poured out to other gods, to provoke me to anger.

Jer 32:35 They built the high places of Ba'al in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to offer up their sons and daughters to Molech, though I did not command them, nor did it enter into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.

Ps 106:28 Then they attached themselves to the Ba'al of Pe'or, and ate sacrifices offered to the dead;


FORTIFICATIONS


FUNERARY RITES

Gen 23:19 After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Mach-pe'lah east of Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.

Gen 25:8 Abraham breathed his last and died in a good old age, an old man and full of years, and was gathered to his people.

Gen 35:20 and Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave; it is the pillar of Rachel's tomb, which is there to this day.

Gen 50:13 for his sons carried him to the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field at Mach-pe'lah, to the east of Mamre, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite, to possess as a burying place.

Gen 50:26 So Joseph died, being a hundred and ten years old; and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

Judg 8:32 And Gideon the son of Jo'ash died in a good old age, and was buried in the tomb of Jo'ash his father, at Ophrah of the Abiez'rites.

Judg 16:31 Then his brothers and all his family came down and took him and brought him up and buried him between Zorah and Esh'ta-ol in the tomb of Mano'ah his father. He had judged Israel twenty years.

2Sam 2:32a And they took up As'ahel, and buried him in the tomb of his father,

2Sam 3:31 Then David said to Jo'ab and to all the people who were with him,"Rend your clothes, and gird on sackcloth, and mourn before Abner." And King David followed the bier.

2Sam 4:12 And David commanded his young men, and they killed them, and cut off their hands and feet, and hanged them beside the pool at Hebron. But they took the head of Ish-bo'sheth, and buried it in the tomb of Abner at Hebron.

2Sam 17:23 When Ahith'ophel saw that his counsel was not followed, he saddled his ass, and went off home to his own city. And he set his house in order, and hanged himself; and he died, and was buried in the tomb of his father.

2Sam 21:14 And they buried the bones of Saul and his son Jonathan in the land of Benjamin in Zela, in the tomb of Kish his father; and they did all that the king commanded. And after that God heeded supplications for the land.

1Kgs 13:22 but have come back, and have eaten bread and drunk water in the place of which he said to you, "Eat no bread, and drink no water"; your body shall not come to the tomb of your fathers.'"

1Kgs 13:31 And after he had buried him, he said to his sons, "When I die, bury me in the grave in which the man of God is buried; lay my bones beside his bones.

2Kgs 9:28 His servants carried him in a chariot to Jerusalem, and buried him in his tomb with his fathers in the city of David.

2Chr 16:14 They buried him in the tomb which he had hewn out for himself in the city of David. They laid him on a bier which had been filled with various kinds of spices prepared by the perfumer's art; and they made a very great fire in his honor.


GATES

HOUSES

IVORY INLAYS

1Kgs 22:39                                                         
Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all
that he did, and the ivory                                      
house which he built, and all the cities                             
that he built, are they not                             
written in the Book of the Chronicles                   
of the Kings of Israel?                                 
             
Amos 3:15                                               
I will smite the winter house with the summer house;    
and the houses of ivory shall perish,                   
and the great houses shall come to an end," says the    
LORD.                                                   
             
Amos 
6:4a                                               
Woe to those who lie upon beds of ivory,                
and stretch themselves upon their couches,              

JEWELRY

Gen 24:22 When the camels had done drinking, the man took a gold ring weighing a half shekel, and two bracelets for her arms weighing ten gold shekels,

Ezek 16:12 And I put a ring on your [female] nose, and earrings in your ears, and a beautiful crown upon your head.

Exod 35:22 So they came, both men and women; all who were of a willing heart brought brooches and earrings and signet rings and armlets, all sorts of gold objects, every man dedicating an offering of gold to the LORD.

Num 31:50 And we have brought the LORD's offering, what each man found, articles of gold, armlets and bracelets, signet rings, earrings, and beads, to make atonement for ourselves before the LORD."

Judg 8:24 And Gideon said to them, "Let me make a request of you; give me every man of you the earrings of his spoil." (For they had golden earrings, because they were Ish'maelites.)

Judg 8:26 And the weight of the golden earrings that he requested was one thousand seven hundred shekels of gold; besides the crescents and the pendants and the purple garments worn by the kings of Mid'ian, and besides the collars that were about the necks of their camels.

Isa 3:18-21 In that day the Lord will take away [from the daughters of Zion] the finery of the anklets, the headbands, and the crescents; the pendants, the bracelets, and the scarfs; the headdresses, the the armlets, the sashes, the perfume boxes and the amulets; the signet rings and noise rings;

Prov 11:22 Like a gold ring in a swine's snout is a beautiful woman without discretion.


MAGIC and DIVINATION

1 Sam 6:4-5 When they asked, 'What gift shall we send back to him?' they answered, 'Send five tumors modelled in gold and five gold rats, one for each of the Philistine princes, for the same plague afflicted all of you and your prices. Make models of your tumors and of the rates which are ravaging the land,, and give honor to the God of Israel;


SELECTED SITES

Gezer (Tell Gezer)

Judg 1:29 And E'phraim did not drive out the Canaanites who dwelt in Gezer; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them.

1Chr 14:16 And David did as God commanded him, and they smote the Philistine army from Gibeon to Gezer.

  • *

    2Sam 5:25 And David did as the LORD commanded him, and smote the Philistines from Geba to Gezer.

    1Kgs 9:15-17 And this is the account of the forced labor which King Solomon levied to build the house of the LORD and his own house and the Millo and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megid'do and Gezer (16) (Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up and captured Gezer and burnt it with fire, and had slain the Canaanites who dwelt in the city, and had given it as dowry to his daughter, Solomon's wife; (17) so Solomon rebuilt Gezer) and Lower Beth-hor'on

    Hazor (Tell Hazor)

    Josh 11:10 And Joshua turned back at that time, and took Hazor, and smote its king with the sword; for Hazor formerly was the head of all those kingdoms.

    1Sam 12:9 But they forgot the LORD their God; and he sold them into the hand of Sis'era, commander of the army of Jabin king of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab; and they fought against them.

    1Kgs 9:15 And this is the account of the forced labor which King Solomon levied to build the house of the LORD and his own house and the Millo and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megid'do and Gezer

    2Kgs 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel Tig'lath-pile'ser king of Assyria came and captured I'jon, A'bel-beth-ma'acah, Jan-o'ah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naph'tali; and he carried the people captive to Assyria.

    Lachish (Tell ed-Duweir)

    2 Chronicles 11:7-10 He (Rehoboam) rebuilt Bethlehem, Etam, Tekoa, Beth-zur, Soco, Adullam, Gath, Mareshah, Ziph, Adoraim, Lachish, Azekah, Zorah, Aijalon, Hebron;

    2Kgs 18:14 And Hezeki'ah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria at Lachish, saying, "I have done wrong; withdraw from me; whatever you impose on me I will bear." And the king of Assyria required of Hezeki'ah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold.

    2Kgs 18:17 And the king of Assyria sent the Tartan, the Rab'saris, and the Rab'shakeh with a great army from Lachish to King Hezeki'ah at Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. When they arrived, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is on the highway to the Fuller's Field.

    Isa 36:2 And the king of Assyria sent the Rab'shakeh from Lachish to King Hezeki'ah at Jerusalem, with a great army. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool on the highway to the Fuller's Field.

  • *

    2Chr 32:9 After this Sennach'erib king of Assyria, who was besieging Lachish with all his forces, sent his servants to Jerusalem to Hezeki'ah king of Judah and to all the people of Judah that were in Jerusalem, saying,

    Jer 34:7 when the army of the king of Babylon was fighting against Jerusalem and against all the cities of Judah that were left, Lachish and Aze'kah; for these were the only fortified cities of Judah that remained. (see, Lachish Ostracon IV)

    Megiddo (Tell Megiddo)

    Judg 1:27 Manas'seh did not drive out the inhabitants of Beth-she'an and its villages, or Ta'a-nach and its villages, or the inhabitants of Dor and its villages, or the inhabitants of Ibleam and its villages, or the inhabitants of Megid'do and its villages; but the Canaanites persisted in dwelling in that land.

    Judg 5:19 "The kings came, they fought; then fought the kings of Canaan, at Ta'anach, by the waters of Megid'do; they got no spoils of silver.

    1Kgs 9:15 And this is the account of the forced labor which King Solomon levied to build the house of the LORD and his own house and the Millo and the wall of Jerusalem and Hazor and Megid'do and Gezer

    [NOTE: Curious that Megiddo is not mentioned in this passage.] 2Kgs 15:29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel Tig'lath-pile'ser king of Assyria came and captured I'jon, A'bel-beth-ma'acah, Jan-o'ah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naph'tali; and he carried the people captive to Assyria.

    2Kgs 23:29-30 In his days Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphra'tes. King Josi'ah went to meet him; and Pharaoh Neco slew him at Megid'do, when he saw him. (30) And his servants carried him dead in a chariot from Megid'do, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own tomb. And the people of the land took Jeho'ahaz the son of Josi'ah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead.


    PERSONAGES

    Amos 9:7                                                             
    "Are you not like the Ethiopians to me,                          
    O people of Israel?" says the LORD.                              
    "Did I not bring up Israel from the land of Egypt,                
    and the Philistines from Caphtor and                              
    the Syrians from Kir?                                             
    

    2Kgs 3:4 Now Mesha king of Moab was a sheep breeder; and he had to deliver annually to the king of Israel a hundred thousand lambs, and the wool of a hundred thousand rams. [2 Kings 3:4-27 describes the campaign of the Kings of Judah and Israel against Mesha. The kings attack Moab from the south. The Mesha or Moabite Stone records the campaigns of Mesha to the north.]


    WATER SYSTEMS

    2Kgs 20:20 The rest of the deeds of Hezeki'ah, and all his might, and how he made the pool and the conduit and brought water into the city, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?

  • *

    2 Chronicles 32:30 It was Hezekiah who stopped the upper outlet of the waters of Gihon and directed them down to the west side of the Citadel of David.